"DETROIT UNDER CADILLAC."
LIST OF PROPERTY OWNERS
A HISTORY OF THE SETTLEMENT
1701 TO 1710.
C. M. BURTON
Map and List of the First Colonists
Directory of Residents, 1701-1710
Fr. Denissen's Letter.
A series of articles prepared by me for the Sunday News-Tribune
of Detroit, and which appeared in that paper during
the summer of 1896, have been arranged into the form of a
pamphlet for better preservation and distribution, among those
who are interested in the study of Detroit's early history.
Notwithstanding a good deal of labor has been expended in
attempting to make this a perfect work, I am painfully aware
that it contains many errors, but I am also certain that it
contains a vast amount of entirely new historical matter,
that can, and probably will, be used by other students than myself.
The Rev. Christian Denissen, concerning whose work I have spoken
more at large in the following pages, has consented, at my
urgent request, to correct a few of the mistakes in my work, and
I have gladly availed myself of his assistance, and have added
his work as a supplement to my own.
DETROIT, Nov.20, 1896.
C. M. BURTON.
The early history of Detroit is scarcely known. The records
that contain its story are to be found in Montreal, Quebec and Paris.
Mackinac was established long before Detroit was thought of, but
it existed merely as a missionary post, and as a rendezvous for
voyageurs and a depot for supplies for the Indian trade. It was
never a colony, and no thought of colonization was ever coupled
with its name, nor was it established or maintained with any
expectation that a colony weuld be founded. It was so far north,
and the climate was so cold that there was no certainty of a corn
crop any year, and Indian corn was the only bread food that was raised
until after the establishment of Detroit. The Indians friendly to
French interests were all living in the north, for they had been
driven from this part of the country by the Iroquois in the long
series of wars, which-immediately preceded the establishment of a
military post at this point.
Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac had been the commandant at Mackinac
from 1694 to 1698, and while occupying that position had cast his
eye southward as a better location than Mackinac for founding a colony.
With the foresight of a skillful diplomat he reasoned that the
location of a permanent colony on the Detroit river would
tend to keep the English from trading among the upper or French Indians
and, moreover, if the post once established was properly managed,
the commandant could draw around it all the Indians of the west,
and their numbers, added to the strength of a French garrison would
compel a peace with the warlike Iroquois. He was right in his reasonings
and if his plans had been carried out as he laid them one may reasonably
think that the French power would still be strong in America.
Having obtained permission from his government to found a colony
at Detroit, he set out on his Errand in the spring of 1701, and
reached the site of the future city on the 24th of July. The
palisades, at once erected for the post, inclosed an arpent of land,
a French acre of 192 feet on a side.
HUNTING FOR FURS.
Most of the business carried on in this western country was
hunting the fur-bearing animals, preparing their furs for
market, and transporting them to Montreal. But the hunters had
to live, and a trade was carried on between the latter place
and the upper country, as this was called, by means of canoes
and bateaux. These canoes were loaded at Montreal and brought to
Detroit either over the Ottawa river away up north, coming down
through the Georgian bay, or through the Niagara route, over the
Lakes Ontario and Erie. The latter route was the easier of
the two, for there was but one portage at Niagara Falls, while
over the Ottawa route there were at least 30 portages.
The first trip Cadillac made was over the Ottawa route, for the French
government feared that the Iroquois Indians would attack him if he went on
the Niagara route, but the next year, 1702, there was less fear of
tnose warlike Indians and the shorter and easier road was taken.
There were traders, capitalists in a small way in Montreal, who fitted out
these canoe loads of merchandise and sent them to the upper country. One
of these merchants would employ a trustworthy voyageur who might,
perhaps, have an interest in the enterprise, to fit out an expedition to the
upper country. The canoe being loaded, agreements or contracts were made
with a sufficient number of men to conduct the enterprise. All these
agreements and contracts with the employees were reduced to writing
before a notary in Montreal. If the parties were able to write they
signed their names to the agreements, and if they were illiterate,
that fact was stated in the contract. These contracts were retained
by the notary, and now form one of the best evidences of tne early
life of this first western colony.
I have thousands of these agreements, extending from 1680 to 1760, and
they contain not only the names of the early voyageurs, but their places
of residence and occupations, dates of their visits to the western
country, times and terms of employment, and they frequently show the
value of services and commodities and the volume of trade carried on.
SPRANG UP, AS IF BY MAGIC.
To the Indians, the advent of Cadillac, with his little troop, was a
revelation, and it worked a revolution. The little village sprang up
as if by magic, and the Indians flocked to it from all sides; from all
quarters they came, singly and in nations. What on the 23rd of July,
1701, was a wilderness, and on the next day was a houseless city of 100
souls, in eight months time was a rival of Montreal and Quebec in trade,
had a population of 6,000 beings, and was the metropolis of America.
The Indians, far outnumbering the whites, were encouraged to settle
around the fort, and their villages, four or five in number, were above
and below the palisaded inclosure.
The next three years were devoted to the building up of the village and
putting on a firm foundation the work already laid out. The lots within the
palisades were all very small, generally about 20x25 feet, and probably
entirely covered by buildings. The civilians owned their own houses,
while those of the soldiers belonged to Cadi]lac. To the soldiers small
gardens of half an acre each were fenced off, a short distance east of
the inclosure and fronting on the east side of Randolph street, between the
river and Fort street.
CITY'S ANCIENT BOUNDS.
It was not until 1704 that the founder obtained permission to make
conveyances of the lands in and around the village, though it is very
probable that the persons who took possession of parcels before that date,
and built on or cultivated them, did so with the tacit understanding that
their titles would be confirmed some day. By the time Cadillac had
obtained permission to make transfers to his Inhabitants, the boundary lines
of the village had grown too small, and so the palisades were set farther
out, and new palisades built, to include a more extended territory.
The principal street of the village was Ste. Anne street, running about
parallel to the present Jefferson avenue, and occupying nearly the northerly
line of that thoroughfare, so that the southern tier of lots and
St. Louis street fell entirely in that street.
The westerly line was not far from the present line of Shelby street, and
the easterly line was a short distance west of Griswold street. At the
easterly end, and at first without the palisades, was a church, occupying
the ground, on which is the present banking house of A. Ives & Sons.
When the village limits were extended, the line was moved to the east
and west and reached to Griswold street on the east, and Wayne street
on the west. The conveyances, made by Cadillac during the remainder
of his stay in the place, were forwarded by him to the colonial office,
and are now deposited in the department of marines, in Paris. Of all these
conveyances, I have a complete copy, and have undertaken to arrange them
in a manner to construct a map of Detroit, as it was in 1708. The
arrangement of these tracts so as to form a village plat, has been a
task of no small proportions, and has been accomplished only after
weeks of diligent study.
VILLAGE ON HIGH GROUND.
It may be that this map is faulty. I have no doubt that it is,
in some particulars. But it will do as a foundation to work
from, and a better one may be constructed here-after, when
more information can be obtained from which to work. I am better
pleased with the form of the village, as Indicated on this
map, than with any published map of later date.
In order to prove the accuracy of the map, I had it traced on
the present city map, and find the lines of lots existing before
the fire of 1805, if many of which still serve as boundary lines of
present buildings, coincide very nearly with the Cadillac conveyances.
The map also indicates that the southerly line of the vlllage was nearly
the center line of Jefferson avenue, and was thus on a high ground,
while all other maps I have seen Indicate the southerly line as south
of Jefferson avenue, on the verge of the slope toward the river.
It seems to me reasonable that the palisades would not be driven in a
hillside, and hence, that my conception of the village plat is more
rational than the ideas of those who have platted the village on the verge
of the hill.
Now, about the real estate owners, and the prices they paid
for the property owned by them. We must understand that the
real estate itself was of no great value. There were millions
of acres, unclaimed and uncultivated, to be had for the asking,
so that the prices derived by Cadillac from his sales are
really the prices which the purchasers were willing to pay for
the protection afforded by his government, and by the palisades.
Cadillac was the seigneur, or lord, and had applied for the office
and title of marquis of Detroit; and these little parcels of laud he sold
were disposed of on condition that the purchaser should occupy
or cultivate, or retain possession of, in person or by tenant,
and should pay to the lord an annual stipend.
This was not great, but it was sufficient to keep the palisades
in repair, to maintain the soldiery, and provide for Cadillac
and his family. Perhaps the revenues would not be sufficient to
do all this, but it did a part, and there were other sources of
revenue on which the lord could depend.
The trade of the post was in his hands, for some years, and a
considerable revenue was obtained in this manner. The Company
of the Colony had the exclusive right to the trade at Detroit
at one time, and during this period, Cadillac had a salary of
2,000 livres, and was not obliged to maintain the soldiers at
his expense. A livre was a French coin of the value of 20
cents, but at this time the relative value of this money was
greater than at the present a time.
WINDMILL GRINDS THE CORN.
The company did not want Detroit colonized. They preferred
to have the country devoted to hunting, rather than to agriculture,
but they gave up everything to Cadillac in 1705, and after that date
the whole expense of the government fell on his shoulders.
There was another expense that fell alike on Cadillac and the inhabitants,
and that was the maintenance of the church and the priest. The church
itself, and all the vestments and paraphernalia, belonged to Cadillac,
as his individual property. A large portion of the expense of maintaining
the parish priest was also borne by him, but the inhabitants paid a
part. Taxes, as we understand, them, were unknown to the
people of that day, but those traders who came to Detroit
solely to trade, and who did not reside here, were compelled to
pay something for the church privileges that they enjoyed.
Cadillac owned the public mill-a windmill-used to grind corn and
wheat. This returned a year]y net revenue of 500 crowns.
EARLY LAND RENTALS.
On the accompanying map I have placed numbers on the various
lots to conform to the report made by Cadillac. They do not
agree with the order of alienation, but all the transfers
were made between 1707 and 1710. The names of the purchasers,
arranged according to the numbers on the map, are also given,
with the consideration for each parcel. The names are
sometimes indefinite, for these Frenchmen had curious habits of
changing their name, passing by different names at different times,
and even in the little village Cadillac did not seem to know
the first names of all his people, as frequent references are made
such as "a man named Rencontre," "a man named Beauregard."
Generally, when a parcel of land was conveyed, there were two items
in the consideration required. First, a fixed rental, payable every
year and probably accepted in lieu of all taxes, except the tithes for
maintaining the church, and second, a certain sum which Cadillac
required for privileges extended to the purchaser, as for instance,
suppose the purchaser was a blacksmith, Cadillac having the
exclusive right of trading at the post, would grant this purchaser the right
of blacksmithing to the exclusion of all others, and would receive an
extra compensation for this privilege. The ownership of the land
remained in Cadillac, and no man was entitled to his lot unless
he took and maintained actual possession of it. If he abandoned it, it
reverted to Cadillac, and he sold it to some other person.
From references in some of the conveyances, it appears that
there were transfers made to parties not included in the report.
We know that a man named Boucherville, and another named St. Aubin
owned lands, but we do not have their deeds.
Cadillac's conveyances were not confined to the village. He
granted a good many farms and the boundary lines of these tracts
can be as distinctly traced as if made today. These farmers
lived within the palisades, for it was sometimes dangerous to live
unprotected by soldiers. The farmers had rents to pay for the farm
lands, similar to the inhabitants of the village. But where a
farmer had two places, one in the country, and one in the city, a
different and lower rate of rents was demanded. This list doubtless
contains the names of the most influential of the first settlers of
Detroit, and many of them are familiar as the ancestors of the families
of French descent, still remaining with us.
I give the name of the lot owner, the number of his lot and the
date of the conveyance and consideration paid.
(See Map on opposite page.)
DETROIT'S ORIGINAL COLONISTS.
1 Pierre Chesne, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and 10
livres for other rights given up, all payable in furs, or in
such coined money as may be current.
2 Andre Chouet, dit Cameraud, March 10, 1707 for 3 livres rent
and 10 livres for other rights.
3 Pierre Taverau, dit La Grandeur, March 10, 1707 for 38 sols
rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was afterwards
conveyed to Robert Germain. A sol, or sou, was a small coin, or penny.
4 Joseph Despre, or Depre, March 10, 1707, for 2 livres
rent and 10 livres for other rights.
5 Solomon Joseph Du Vestin, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent
and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to
Richard le Michel Bizaillon.
6 Pierre Leger, dit Parisien, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent
and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to
7 Bonaventure Complin, dit L'Esperance. March 10, 1707,
for 24 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was
sold to Francis Livernois.
8 Jacob de Marsac, dit Desrocher, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres
and 2 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights.
9 Mr. D'Argenteuil, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and
10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to Nicolas Rose.
10 Jean Richard, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres for
other rights. This lot was abandoned and afterward granted to
11 Jean Labatier, dit Champaign, March 10, 1707, 2 livres
rent and 10 livres for other rights. This man's name is given in
another place as Abatis. This lot was surrendered March 27, 1709.
12 Estienne Boutron, dit Major, March 10, 1707, 3 livres rent
and 10 livres for other rights. This lot reverted to Cadillac and
was newly granted to Antoine Magnant.
13 Pierre Hemard, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. This lot was sold to Jacques Hubert.
14 Antoine Dupuis, dit Beauregard. March 10, 1707, 3 livres rent
and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to
Jean Baptiste Duplessis.
15 Jacques Langlois, March 10, 1707, for 6 livres and 10 sols rent
and 10 livres for other rights.
16 Guillaume Bouet, dit Deliard, March 10, 1707, for 2 livres
and 10 sols rent, and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was
subsequently sold to Pierre Robert.
17 Michel Masse, March 10, 1707, for 8 livres and 8 sols rent
and 10 livres for other rights.
18 Michel Campo, March 10, 1707, for 5 livres and 6 sols rent
and 10 livres for other rights.
19 Louis Normand, March 10, 1707, for 2 livres and 10 sols rent
and 10 livres for other rights. This was subsequently sold to
20 Francois Tesee, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. On the 20th of June, 1710, this parcel was conveyed
to Antoine Carriere.
21 Pierre Chantelon, March 10, 1707, for 56 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. This lot was later conveyed to Jean Le Soeur.
22 Francois Bienvenue, dit de L'Isle, March 10, 1707,
for 3 livres rent, and 10 livres for other rights. Many descendants
of this man still live in and around Detroit. They generally go
by the name of Delisle, and some of them have coupled the two
names together, as Bienvenue-Delisle.
23 Pierre Esteve, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
24 Blaise Surgere, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and 10
livres for other rights.
25 Pierre Porrier, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
26 Antoine Ferron, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
27 Pierre Tacet, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. This was afterwards sold to Jean Coutent.
28 Francois Fafard de Lorme, March 10, 1707, for 4 livres and
10 sols rent, and 10 livres for other rights.
29 Michel Disier, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
30 Jacob de Marsac, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. This lot was sold to Charles Charon.
31 "A man named Rencontre," March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent
and 10 livres for other privileges. There was a "Rencontre" street
in the village, which, I suppose took its name from this person.
32 "A man named Desloriers," March 10, 1708, for 50 sols rent
and 10 livres for other rights.
33 "A man named Xaintonge," March 10, 1708, for 50 sols rent
and 10 livres for other rights. The name seems to indicate that the
owner of this parcel was an Indian, though it would not be very likely
that an Indian would pay rent, or would follow a trade. He sold a lot
to "a man named Bouche."
34 Jacques Du Moulin, March 10, 1708, for 3 livres rent and
10 livres for other rights.
35 Guilleaume Aquet, dit Laporte, March 10, 1708, for 50 sols rent
and 10 livres for othet rights. This grantee in other places is named
Aquenet. Pierre Chesne, who owned the lot on Ste. Anne street, adjacent
to this lot, purchased it, thus giving him two frontages, one on
Ste. Anne and the other on St. Joachim street. Pierre Chesne (or Chene,
as it is now commonly called), was one of the most important men of that
early day, and many of his descendants still reside in Detroit.
36 Louis Gustineau, March 10, 170S, for 50 sols rent and
10 livres for other rights.
37 Joseph Parent, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and
10 livres for other rights. Parent was a blacksmith. It has been
stated by some who have written regarding Detroit's early
history, that Parent and Pierre Roy were living among the
Indians in the neighborhood of Detroit before the arrival of
Cadillac and his party, and consequently that they were the
first white people here.
38 Martin Sirier, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and
10 livres for other rights. Nicolas Rivard, afterwards purchased
39 Quilenchive, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. The grantee was an Indian chief, I think, and he
afterwards sold the parcel to Julien Dervisseau.
40 M. Derance, March 10, 1707, for 30 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
41 Du Figuier, March 10, 1707. for 54 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. The lot was surrendered by Du Figuier and resold
to Paul Guillet.
42 La Montagne, called Pierre Mouet, March 10, 1707, for 4 livres,
10 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. Baptiste Trudeau
subsequently purchased this property.
43 Pierre Mallet, March 10, 1707, for 8 livres rent and
10 livres for other rights.
44 Antoine Dufresne, March 14, 1708, for 5 livres rent and
10 livres for other rights.
45 Jean Baptiste Chornie, March 10, 1708, for 32 sols rent
and 10 livres for other rights. Subsequently transferred to
46 Jean Casse, March 10, 1708, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. Sold to Zacharie Plante.
47 Paul Langlois, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
48 Jerome Marliard, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and
10 livres for other rights.
49 Andre Bombardie, Maich 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and
10 livres for other rights.
5O Pierre Du Roy, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
51 Pierre Roy, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres 18 sols rent and
10 livres for other rights.
52 Francois Marque, March 10, 1707, for 26 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. Jean Paquet purchased this lot.
53 Antoine Magnant, March 20, 1708, for 5 livres rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
54 Francois Bonne, July 7, 1708, at 5 livres rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
55 Toussaints Dardennes, March 20, 1708, at 30 sols rent and 10
livres for other rights.
56 Pierre Bassinet, March 20, 1708, at 20 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
57 Francois Brunet, June 20, 1708, at 40 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
58 Antoine Beauregard, July 17, 1708, at 12 livres rent and
10 livres for other rights. This was surrendered to Cadillac.
59 Marie Le Page, March 20, 1707, at 3 livres 12 sols rent and
10 livres for other rights. This is the only record of a conveyance
to a woman in tne early Detroit. Madam Le Page had a husband living
at this time, but subsequent events, as well as this conveyance,
lead me to think that he had separated from her-probably with just
cause. Her name and a little of her history appears in the directory
60 Jacques Campo, March 1, 1709, at 40 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
61 Jean Serond, March 10, 1707, at 50 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights. Joseph Trudeau bought this lot subsequently.
62 Pierre Robert, March 14, 1709, at 6 livres rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
63 Larramee, March 6, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for
64 Rene Le Moine, March 20, 1709, at 40 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
65 Jacques Le Moine, Sept. 1, 1706, at 40 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
66 Paul Guillet, Dec. 10, 1709, at 6 livres rent and 10 livres for
67 Joseph Rinard, June 27, 1710, at 30 sols rent and 10 livres
for other rights.
68 Antoine Tuffe, called du Fresne, June 21, 1710 at 2 livres rent
and 10 livres for other rights.
CADILLAC'S TENANT FARMERS.
Of the garden lands within the fort we have the record of only two
transfers of half an arpent each, one to Beauregard and the other
to Delisle. The rate of rental in each case was 1 sol per foot,
making 4 livres and 10 sols. The price fixes the size of a half
arpent as 90 feet front.
The farm lands, so far as we now know, were nearly all granted up
stream, from the fort. One grant, and the only one of which we had
positive knowledge, up to the discovery of the transfers I have
recently unearthed, was to de Lorme. This farm is still called
the de Lorme farm, from its original proprietor, and is
situated in the township of Grosse Pointe, a short distance east
of the present water works. Having the exact location of this farm,
and the boundary lines of the others, it would not be as difficult
a task to plan out the French concessions as it has been to map the
I have a list of 31 of these farm grants; some were made to lot owners
in the city. The list of grantees is as follows:
1, Pierre Mallet; 2, Francois Fafard de Lorme;
3, Baptiste Gorion; 4, Jacob de Marsac;
5, Andre Bombardie; 6, Pierre Hemard;
7, Bonaventure Compien; 8. Jerome Marliard;
9, Pierre Esteve; 10, Estienne Boutron;
11, Antoine Dupuis; 12, Joseph Parent;
13. Michael Dizier; 14, Francois Bosseron;
15, Jacob de Marsac; 16, Antoine Dupuis (this is the same as No. 11, above);
17, Francois Marque; 18, Jacques L'Anglois;
19, Paul L'Anglois; 20, Antoine Texier;
21, Francois Jardis, 22. Pierre Chantelor;
23, Jean Richard; 24, "a man named Laloire;
25, Pierre Leger; 26, "a man named Lefleur;"
27, Michel Campos; 28. Jean Durant;
29, Blaise Surgere; 30, Francois Masse;
31, Damoissell Magdalaine de la Mothe (Cadillac's daughter),
a tract of land extending from the River Ecorse, three leagues, 9 miles,
with a depth of five leagues, 15 miles, and including Grosse Ile and
all other islands in the vicinity.
In addition to the above grants were 13 gardens, of half an arpent
each, as follows:
1, Monsieur Dargenteuil: 2, Pierre Mallet;
3, Jacob de Marsac; 4, Jacques Langlois;
5, Louis Normand; 6, Pierre Esteve;
7, Jerome Marlier; 8, Michael Disier;
9, Estienne Boutron; 10, Bonaventure Compiens;
11, ?? Chantelor; 12, Pierre Porrier;
13, Pierre Leger.
I believe that the above lists will give the names of every
resident in Detroit up to the year 1708, excepting only the
priest, the officers of the company and the soldiers.
Where did Cadillac live?
I cannot answer this question satisfactorily now, though I think
he lived on the northwest corner of St. Francois and Ste. Anne
streets, near the church. If I am right his house was on what is
now the north side of Jefferson avenue, half way between
Griswold and Shelby streets, about where the old Masonic hall stands.
You will observe that the properties bringing the highest prices were
those on Ste. Anne street, in the immediate vicinity of this land.
This would naturally follow, if the house of the cornmandant was located
here, St. Anne Street, at this point, was the Woodward avenue of the
little city, and here the aristocracy lived with Cadillac in their midst.
What kind of houses did they have?
From all I have so far learned, the modern idea of a log house was unknown
to them. I think their houses, even those of the better classes, consisted
of stakes, driven into the ground as closely together as possible and the
interstices filled with mortar or mud. These pickets were cut off, even,
at the top, and a pitch-roof of split rails put on. Sawing lumber by hand
was too difficult a job to permit much sawed lumber to be used, and what
would be thus obtained was for interior work, doors, shutters, etc.
It is very probable that no houses had windows, except those of
the wealthiest citizens. Glass, for windows, was doubtless
very scarce and very expensive. I can find no certain record
that there was any glass windows at all, though in the description
of the church occurs the statement that it contained a window with
shutters and sash frames between, "of 20 squares," each. The squares
may refer to the small panes of glass, common even until a few years
since, in church windows.
A short time after Cadillac left Detroit to become governor of
Louisiana, in 1711, he had a complete inventory of his belongings
in Detroit, made by Pierre Chesne and Antoine Magnant, and the priest,
Father Cherubin Deniaux, and this property was turned over to Pierre Roy
for safe keeping. From this list we obtain an idea of the buildings
owned by Cadillac, and I append their full description.
A warehouse 37 1/2 feet long and 22 feet wide, 8 feet high, boarded top and
bottom with thick planks of oak, the top with a good ridge and the bottom
with square joints, with its shutters and doors and locks closing with a
key, and a wooden staircase, a press for pressing furs, a counter, three
shelves for books, lined with boards for one-fourth of the height.
Another house of stakes in earth, 33 1/2 feet long, 19 feet wide and
8 feet high, half of planks above, with joints in a good ridge and
the rest of stakes, and below, half of beams with square joints, half
mortised, and the other part of split stakes, with four cabinets, with
their doors and locks closing with keys. The said house having window
shutters and a door closing with a key.
A small cellar adjoining the said house, boarded below with split stakes
with a shutter and a door closing with a key. Also a porch at
the door of said house with the door and lock.
Another house of stakes in earth, 18 feet long, 12 1/2 wide, 6 1/2 high,
boarded with split stakes above, and below half of sawn beams with square
joints, and the other half without boarding; with its shutters and a door
closing with a key. Also a cabinet in the house, with a door and its hinges,
also a postern outside the house, framed with Its lock. Also a cellar
12 1/2 feet long by 6 wide, adjoining the house, with a door and its iron work.
Another inferior house of stakes in earth, 16 feet long, 12 wide,
without either door or shutters, serving as a shed for cattle.
Also a barn 50 feet long by 27 feet wide and 11 high, the top
roofed with wood, having its tenons broken, with its "battrier"
of 34 joists and partly worn out, surrounded with stakes in
earth joined together.
Another house 33 feet long, 21 wide, 9 high, boarded above with
split stakes, surrounded with stakes in earth, neither closing
with a door nor by shutters, having only four sashes of the
shutters and the two side timbers of the door.
Also a dove cote, raised on four wooden posts, 6 feet high, 10
square, surrounded with oak beams two inches thick, with
square joints, covered with straw, the two gable ends of earth,
its door and its hinges.
Also an ice house 15 feet square and 6 high out of the ground
and 15 feet deep in the ground, boarded with split beams, with
its door closing with a key.
Also a building used as a church, 35 feet long, 24 1/2 wide,
10 high, boarded entirely above, with oak joists in a good ridge,
and below of beams with square joints; with its doors, windows
and shutters, and sash frames between of 20 squares each, the
whole closing with a key.
Also a heavy bell.
OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE.
I have been asked what the people in Detroit did during the
period of the command of Cadillac. At first they were
particularly engaged in putting up the small houses that served
to shelter them from the rain and cold, and erecting the
palisades that protected them from the Indians. At the end of
the first year after the founding of the village, and on the
25th of September, 1702, Cadillac sent a report, covering 53
closely written pages of manuscript, descriptive of what
he had done and seen around Detroit, and his plans for the future
great city. His letter is very interesting and some ideas can be
obtamed from it to show the occupations of his colonists.
The palisades he had erected enclosed an arpent of land, making
nearly 800 feet of picket line. These pickets were small trees,
six or eight inches in diameter, driven three or four feet into the
earth, and extending some 12 to 15 feet above the ground. There were
no women at Detroit during the first year, and probably the men
huddled together two or three or more in a hut, but as time went
on and women began to come from Quebec and Montreal to join their
husbands, each family had its own house.
Wild fruit, berries and nuts, grew in great abundance, and the people
gathered all they could to preserve for the coming winter. When the
convoy left Montreal it had carried only sufficient food to last for three
months, and food had to be procured from the Indians and from hunting,
to enable the people to live until the next harvest time. They had
arrived too late to grow any crops for the fall of 1701, but all hands
that could be spared were set at work, preparing the soil for wheat,
a quantity of which Cadillac had brought along for seed. This wheat,
which he called French wheat, was sown on the 7th of October, 1701, and
was cut on the 21st of the succeeding July. The land was not properly
prepared, but the crop was good.
THEY TILLED THE VIRGIN SOIL.
In the spring of 1702 he attempted to raise some spring wheat, but was
not as successful as with his fall sowing. In the summer of 1702 he
had land prepared, and directed Tonty, his lieutenant, to have 20 arpents
sowed by the 20th of September. Twelve arpents were sown with Indian corn,
which came up eight feet high, and of this there was an abundant crop.
Every soldier, and there were 50 of them, had a small garden
of half an acre for his own cultivation, and the civilians
cultivated larger tracts of land, so that in the winter of 1702,
there were besides the gardens, 60 arpents of wheat.
Grapes grew in abundance along the river shore, and an arpent
of land was set apart, tilled, and set out with the choicest
grapevines, in hopes that cultivation would improve the fruit.
To use Cadillac's own words: "All this is no easy task, as
everything has to be carried on the shoulders, for we have no
oxen or horses yet to draw loads, nor to plough, and to
accomplish it, it is necessary to be very active."
The Indians were induced to gather around the fort and form
settlements. Below or to the right of the fort were stationed
the Hurons, and they had cultivated 200 arpents of land,
probably all in Indian corn. Above the fort were the Oppenagos
or Wolves (Loups). They occupied that portion of the city which
was for many years known as the King's commons, and after the
fire of 1805 was known, and is now known, as the governor and
judges' plan. When Cadillac permitted the Oppenagos to occupy
this land it was with the understanding that they should remove
whenever the land was needed as a commons. A mile and a half
further up the river he located four tribes of the Ottawas. The
Miamis also came and asked for land and they were accommodated.
A truce had been patched up between the French and Indians on
one side and the Iroquois on the other, so that the Iroquois
came to the settlement in numbers, but they did not remain there
as the other tribes did.
FIRST WHITE WOMEN SETTLERS.
Madam Cadillac and Tonty's wife, the first white women of the
west, came in the spring of 1702, and from this time on families
began to come, and those men who were already at the settlement
sent for their wives and children. Everything appeared very
prosperous and Cadillac was in good spirits. He supposed that he
owned Detroit and that the trade to be carried on with it was his, but in
1703 he learned that the company of the colony of Canada claimed the
trade of the new post, and he was obliged to surrender his rights to the
company. From this company he received a salary as commandant, but
his interest in the prosperity of the post was gone and he gave little
encouragement to people at Montreal and Quebec to settle at the new place.
He made great efforts to regain his lost rights, and in 1705 he was
entirely successful and the company was directed to return to him everything
that he had before possessed.
Now again did the people begin to flock to Detroit. More people came
flow than ever before, and a greater prosperity seemed to attend the
enterprise. The limits of the village inclosure were extended to permit the
erection of more dwellings for the newcomers. Lots were granted to
those who would build within the palisades, gardens were granted to those
who would cultivate them, near the fort, and farms were staked off for
others who would follow that pursuit. Every man had his occupation and
there were no drones. There were farmers, artisans and soldiers. Every
man was a hunter and during the hunting season one may well conceive
that the village was nearly deserted and that only a sufficient number
remained to protect the place from the savages. In 1706 Cadillac brought
three horses and 10 head of cattle to the place. Evidently two of the horses
died, for in 1711 there was only one horse, named Colin, remaining, but
the cattle multiplied and at that date there were 29 animals belonging to
PLEASURES OF THE POST.
While the lines of caste were pretty strictly drawn to separate
Cadillac and his immediate friends and companions from the
soldiers and voyageurs, the latter associated on friendly and
intimate terms with the Indians. The unmarried soldiers were
encouraged to marry the Indian women, and a close study of the
parish records of Canada incline me to believe that it was no
very uncommon thing for a citizen to have left behind him a
lawful wife and to have selected another in Detroit from some
savage tribe. I cannot in any other way account for the
disappearance of some individual at Quebec or Montreal or
Batiscan or some of the eastern parishes, and the sudden and
unexpected appearance of an individual of the same name, whose
ancestry is the same, or is undefined, with a new wife while the
eastern wife is still in the land of the living. The
collecting together of all the parish records of Canada has
disclosed many items of this nature.
There were no law courts or judges in this city in the
wilderness and Cadillac was the all powerful czar of the
settlement. Always clad in military garments, with his sword
clanging as it struck the ground, in his military parade
through the streets of the village, all hats were off at his
approach and he owed obedience to but one individual-the village
priest. That sword practicing was one of the pleasures of the
post is very evident from he fact that when Cadillac left
Detroit there were 18 swords inventoried among his effects. I do
not find the record of any musical instruments and yet dancing
must have been one means of whiling away the long winter
evenings. In the summer time we know that lacrosse was a
favorite game with both the French and savages, and the
acquaintance and friendship originating in their summer games
must have been continued through the winter in something of
uniform pleasure to both classes. There could be no sleigh
ride parties, for there were no horses, but possibly there was
coasting on the hillside near the river, and I find in
Cadillac's property an account of one hundred small trumpets,
probably used to stir up the enthusiasm of the young savages in
their hours of amusement.
SUPPRESSION BY THE JESUITS.
The older men of both the French and Indians could gather round
the open fire in the great cabins of the Indians and smoke
and tell stories, but for the younger pepple a more active
pleasure must be devised. It is possible that the soldiers
arranged theatricals, but if they did, these were for the
benefit of the French only, for it can scarcely be possible
that an Indian would understand a play.
In 1694 Cadillac had reported the attempt of the Jesuits to
suppress the playing of Nicomede and Mithridate by the soldiers
at Quebec, and the Jesuits were partly successful in their
tirade. If the soldiers desired to entertain themselves in this
manner at Quebec, it is not difficult to believe that they made
the same attempt at Detroit, where they would not be reproached
by the clergy. There was an abundance of brandy always on hand in
the public storehouse, for every boat brought a quantity from below,
and as early as 1706, a brewery was erected and Joseph Parent was
employed at Montreal to come here as a brewer.
There was certainly no Acadian simplicity among the people who
lived in Detroit during Cadillac's time. They were continually
quarreling with each other and with the commandant, and entering
protests and complaints against those in authority. Instances
of this quarreling are very evident from the great number of
Jesuit letters written on the subject, and some contentions are
mentioned in Cadi]lac's correspondence.
A clerk named Desnoyers, sent to represent the Company of the
Colony, was considered by Cadillac disobedient and contumacious.
Cadillac imprisoned him for two hours. Desnoyers considered
himself of great importance in the settlement and resented the
imprisonment as an insult. He immediately made preparations to
return to Montreal, and was about to set out on his journey when
he was again arrested and Imprisoned. Complaint was made against
Cadillac and he defended himself to Count Pontchartrain.
On being asked why he imprisoned the clerk, he replied:
"I did so because it is laid down in my orders that nobody,
officer or otherwise, is to set out from Detroit without my
permission; yet the clerk Desnoyers, to continue his
disobedience, had his boat put in the water and loaded for
Montreal (as he says) without speaking of it to me or saying
anything to me about it, claiming always that he was not
subordinate to me."
The company threatened to be even with him for thus using, or
misusing, their clerk. This imprisonment, Cadillac asserts, is
his great "crime." The audacity to imprison one of their
servants, whom they appointed as their Principal clerk, a waif
and a pour wretch, who came here not knowing which way to turn
on his arrival Iii this country. As to my powers, they are very
ample; being to punish according to circumstances, by censures,
by reprimands, by arrests, by imprisonment, or by deprivation of
civil rights; and in case of distinct disobedience, to run my
sword through any one who has so offended against me. It is by
reason of the remoteness that these orders have always been
given to me, and on account of the seditions and intrigues which
have been attempted to be formed here, which I have known quite
well how to repress."
There is one more subject of interest on which I desire to add a few
answer the oft repeated question of "Who was the first white
man at Detroit?" Not who were the first persons passing
through the Detroit, but who first landed at Detroit with a
determination to make that place his future home? This
question would not have arisen except for statements in some
of the earlier Michigan histories, which allege that Pierre Roy
and Joseph Parent were located at Detroit before Cadillac
came. I believe the statement has no foundation in fact, and
I will try to prove its untruth.
Cadillac asserts, in one of his early letters, that no one had
ever visited this part of the country before. He certainly would
not have made such a statement if two men were then living
there, for he knew these men, as they were both members of his colony.
Pierre Roy married an Indian woman. I take it for granted that
he married her within a short time after first meeting her and
that he brought her to the village as soon as they were married.
Their first child was baptized on April 27, 1704, about three years
after the village was founded.
Now this evidence is only circumstantial, of course, but it is
sufficient to make one believe that unless Roy came with
Cadillac, he did not come at all until the year 1702 or 1703.
Detroit was a sort of neutral ground, not occupied by any
Indians permanently, for it was above the lands of the Iroquois
and below the lands occupied by the other Indian tribes with
whom the Iroquois were then at war.
JOSEPH PARENT'S RECORD.
The other man who is supposed to have been here prior to
Cadillac's time, was Joseph Parent. Joseph Parent was the son
of Pierre Parent, of Quebec, and was born at that place Jan. 27,
1669. Jan. 31, 1690, he married Magdeleine Marette, at Beauport.
He removed to Quebec where his first child, Joseph, was born,
Aug. 13, 1690. His second child, Marie Magdelelne, was born
Dec. 15, 1692; the third was Jean Baptiste, born 1694, 1695 or '96;
the fourth, Marguerite, born July 7, 1698; the fifth, Pierre, born
about 1700; sixth, Marie Anne, born May 22, 1702; seventh, Gilbert,
born Dec. 3, 1703; eighth, Joseph Marie, born Aprii 25, 1705.
He then removed to Detroit, where his ninth child was born, July 21, 1709.
If anything further was needed to show that he could not have
lived in this country before the coming of Cadillac, we have a
contract made by him on March 9, 1706, in which he agrees to go
to Detroit, from Montreal, to work at his trade as master
toolmaker and brewer, for three years. I have thus shown
conclusively, I think, that neither Roy nor Parent lived at or
near the present location of Detroit in the year 1700, or before
Cadillac came, but that Cadillac is, in fact, our first man.
DIRECTORY OF DETROIT, 1701 TO 1710.
I have compiled a list of all the people who were in or about
Detroit during the first nine years of Its existence from the
founding of the city, in 1701, till the time that Cadillac ceased
to be commandant, in 1710. This list is arranged as nearly
alphabetically as the peculiarity of names will permit, and,
I believe, upon the same rules that govern the compilation of
directories, so that this is, in fact, a directory of the city
for the nine years mentioned.
The foundation of this compilation is entirely unpublished
manuscripts, from which the names have been taken as they
occur, and hence the spelling is sometimes improper; but where a
name has occurred more than once in these manuscripts I have
chosen that spelling which seems most proper.
The majority of these people were unable to write or spell their
names, and the commandant, priest or notary in whose writings
the names occur spell them according to sound, or to his ideas
This would be a further reason for imperfection in spelling.
Where a person knew how to write his or her name, it was in a
mechanical manner; the signer would evidently sometimes forget
what letters should form the name, and consequently would
omit in some signatures letters that appear in other places
written by the same party.
All these things have to be contended with and an imperfect name
is not an evidence of lack of earnest study to make my work complete.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION.
Three important series of manuscripts have been carefully examined
for the purppse of ascertaining the names given herewith, and the
information contained in connection with the names is taken from these
The manuscripts consist of, first, the letters and reports of Cadillac.
These letters are in the archives in Paris. They are very voluminous
and very interesting from an historical standpoint.
I have a copy of every one that has been so far discovered.
Second, the records of the church of Ste. Anne, in this city.
These records are peculiarly valuable, and contain many items of
historical interest, besides the birth, marriage and death
notices. The catholic church, so far as my observation goes, has
always been very careful to keep a record of its members, their
births, ancestry, marriage and deaths. The facts relative to
each individual are made matters of record in their churches.
Detroit Is no exception to this rule, and although we occasionally
find matters in other places that show omissions and errors in the
church records, they are few and only discovered on
diligent study of each individual's life.
There was a church building erected and a church record begun as early
as 1701. The church was destroyed by fire in 1703, and the records,
consisting probably of only a sheet or two of paper, were burned with the
church. A new building was at once put up and a new record commenced in 1704.
WONDERFUL INDIVIDUAL RECORD.
The third series of manuscripts consists of the notarial records
on file in the department of justice, in the city of Montreal.
These contain lists of parties who were employed to go to Detroit
with the traders, as bargemen or laborers. Many of them sought
employment in this manner, simply to pay their expenses to the upper
country, with the intention of remaining here if the surroundings
suited them, and consequently some of the oldest French families in
the city can find the names of their ancestors in these contracts.
There are a great many of these contracts, and I have made copies
of all such as pertain to Michigan, making several large volumes of
closely-written manuscripts, between the years 1690 and 1760.
These, then, form the basis from which I have worked in making
this directory. When this portion of my labor was completed, I
turned for confirmation and further assistance to Tanguay's
Dictionnaire Genealogique of French families. Too much cannot
be said in commendation of this work. The author, Fr. Cyprien
Tanguay, collected the registers of all the French catholic
churches of Canada and Michigan, and, with incredible
patience, compiled the entire matter into a grand work of
seven volumes. By means of this compilation one can trace a
French catholic from the time of his leaving France until his
death; can there find the names of the parents, wife and
children of any of these people. In consequence of the wide
scope of this work it is possible to follow the domiciles and
determine the occupation of any person, no matter where he
lived in Canada, or how often he changed residences.
In each church where the individual's name appears in the
register, sufficient data are given with it to identify him,
and when these records are all brought together, as Fr. Tanguay
has collected them, we have the history of every Frenchman.
DETROIT'S MISTY EARLY STORY.
We have a similar work of local importance now in process of
compilation nearly completed I believe. I refer to the work of
Rev. Fr. Denissen of St. Charles' church of this city. His work
founded upon the same general principles as that of Fr. Tanguay,
but is confined to Detroit and Windsor and vicinity. Fr. Denissen,
however, has gone outside the records of the church and has taken such
other authentic records as he can find, and, as he thought, adapted
to his purposes. It is well known that after the termination of
the French regime in 1760 and extending even as late as 1818, very
many protestants were baptized in the catholic church. There was no
other church here to perform this ceremony. Many of these became
converts and their names are frequently found in the succeeding pages
of the church record.
It is, however, to the first 10 years of our city's history that
we look for the ancestry of many of our older families. The men
who came with Cadillac and those who came to him after his
first establishment include the names of Chene, Campau,
Belisle, DeLisle, Chapoton, St. Aubin and many others.
CONFUSION OF EARLY NAMES.
I confess that I do not understand how the old French names are
made up. It seems to me that prior to the time that Detroit was
founded, each of a family, on his attaining his majority, took
to himself such a name as he saw fit-possibly taking the name
from some tract of land-some seniory that he possessed and
named. Thus we have, in many instances, a family of brothers
each bearing different names. The use of the given name was
little known and was scarcely ever employed except in
official documents where the Individual was referred to as being
the son of some person whose full name was given. Even as late
as 1700 the use of the surname was not fully understood and it
is no infrequent circumstance to find the name of a descendant
entirely unlike that of his ancestor.
I call to mind now, a few local names affected by the
uncertainty of names, as the family of St. Aubin. The Detroit
ancestor of this family was named Casse and the name St. Aubin
was attached as a nickname. His children bore the same name of Casse,
but as the third generation was reached, the name St. Aubin was
frequently used alone and the name Casse omitted; after the lapse
of 159 years the name St. Aubin is all that remains and the Casse
is forgotten. Take the family of Beaubiens. Their family name was
Cuilliere. The Laffertys belong to the family of Vissiere. These
are only illustrations. There are many other families in Detroit that
have as abruptly and unceremoniously changed their surnames and
it needs the constant watch upon each name to be able to trace
the families through the generatlons. Another thing about
these early French people that appears odd to us is that, the
women, upon marriage, did not take the name of their husbands.
Wherever a woman is referred to her maiden name is given,
followed by the statement that she is the wife of some person
who is named and also frequently followed by the names of her
parents. This peculiarity frequently assists one in tracing
the identity of names otherwise obscure.
DETROIT'S FIRST DIRECTORY.
Abatis, Jean (or Labbatu, see Labatier).
Aguenet (or Aguet), called Laport, Guilleaume. (Possibly the name should be
Arnauld, Bertrand, merchant, came to Detroit July 18, 1702.
Badeillac, Louis, called Laplante, made an agreement to come to
Detroit May 29, 1701, the first convoy.
Bannois, Jeanne. She was the first wife of Guillaume Bouche,
and died in 1703. This name is given by Tanguay as Beauvais.
Bariteau, Julien, called La Marche, came May 30, 1705.
Baron, Denys, voyageur, came June 21, 1706.
Barthe (called Belleville), Jean, a soldier, came Oct. 10, 1706.
Barthe (called Belleville), Marie Charlotte, daughter of Jean Barthe,
above. Born Oct. 27, 1709.
Bassinet, Joseph, sieur Tourblanche. Came April 2, 1707.
Bassinet, Pierre, brother of above. He came April 2, 1707.
Baudreau, Gabriel. Gahriel Baudreau and his wife Catherine Foretier,
were voyageurs passing through Detroit on their way to Mobile Nov. 24. 1708.
Baudreau, Marie Louise, daughter of Gabriel Baudreau, baptised
Baugret, Francois, called Dufort, came Sept 10, 1710.
Beauchamp, Jacques, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705.
Beauchamp, Pierre, brother of above. Came same time.
Beaugis (or Baugis), Michel, voyageur.
Beauregard. see Dupuis.
Belille (or Belisle), Henry, first surgeon of the fort.
Besnard, Rene, came June 21, 1706. Soldier of Carignan regiment.
Bienvenue, Alexis, son of Francois, below. He married Josette Bouron,
Jan. 17, 1740.
Bienvenue, called Delisle, Francois, came Aug. 2, 1707. His first
wife was Genevieve Laferiere, and his second wife was Marianne Lemoine.
He was buried Sept. 29, 1751. aged 88 years. The transformation of
French names is well illustrated by this person. His descendants are
nearly universally known here by the name of Delisle or DeLisle, and
the surname of two centuries ago is not uncommonly used today as a
christian name, and we frequently find Bienvenue, or Welcome, Delisles
in our real estate records.
Bienvenue, Joseph, son of Francois Bienvenue above, baptized March 5, 1704,
and buried Dec. 3 1711.
Bienvenue, Marie, daughter of Francois Bienvenue above. Baptized
Dec. 8, 1705. She married Jacques Roussel April 7, 1725.
She is named Marianne in the marriage record.
Bienvenue, Marie Joseph, daughter of Francois Bienvenue, born Aug. 25, 1709.
Bienvenue, Rafael. Buried April 24, 1706, aged 2 years. Unless this is
the same person as Joseph Bienvenue, above, it is scarcely possible that
Rafael was a son of Francois Bienvenue. This is the first recorded death
in Detroit, though there is other evidence that a child of Alphonse de Tonty
died before the first church was burned, in 1703, and that Madam Bouche
died in 1703.
Bizaillon (or Bisaillon), Michel, son of Benoit Bisaillon and of
Louise Blaye, of Clairmont, in Auvergne. He married Marguerite Fafard
(dit Delorme), June 30, 1710.
Bluteau, Agathe (In some places this name is spelled Bulteau),
wife of Francois Judith Contant, dit Rancontre.
Boilard, Jeanne, wife of Pierre Leger, dit Parisien.
Bombardier (called la Bombarde), Andre. A soldier and farmer.
Bombardier (called la Bombarde), Bernard Phillipe, son of Andre Bombardier
above, born Oct. 12, 1709.
Bombardier, Jean. Son of Andre Bornbardier above, born July 18, 1707.
Bone, Marie Anne. The name probably should be spelled Beaune. She was
the widow of Francois Lorry and daughter of Jean Bone and
Mary Magdelaine Bourigier. She married Martin Cirier June 12, 1710.
She came to Detroit April 18, 1707, under an agreement to serve Cadillac
for three years at 80 livres per year.
Bonnet, Guillaume (surnamed Deliard) Armorer. A native of the
parish of Charlesburg, near Quebec. He died Jan. 13, 1709.
Bosne, Francois. Came April 13, 1709.
Bosseron, Francois. (Tanguay spells the name Beauceron.) Farmer.
He was the husband of Marie Le Page (which name see.)
Botquin, Pierre (called St Andre). A soldier, came Oct.19, 1706.
An inventory of goods that he carried to Detroit in 1710
includes 50 pounds of powder at 40 sols per pound, 100 pounds of
bullets at 10 sols per pound, and 32 pots (of two quarts each)
of brandy at 45 sols per pot.
Boucher, Guillaume. His first wife was named Jeanne Beauvais,
and after her death, in 1703, he married Angelique Tholme,
widow of Pierre Robert, Aug.16, 1716.
Boucher, Pierre. Esquire sieur de Boucherville.
Bourdon, Pierre, voyageur, came June 15, 1706. Married, in 1711,
Marie Anne Gouyon.
Bougery, Denis, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705.
Bourgery, Jean Louis. Brother of Denis, came Sept. 14, 1710.
Bourg, Jean (called Lapierre). Voyageur, came June 15, 1706.
Bourgoin (called St. Paul), Didier. Soldier of Montigny. He
Boutron (called Major) Estienne. Farmer. The name Estienne
shows one of the common transformations of the French words.
This is now commonly written Etienne (Stephen), and the second
letter 's' has been dropped, as it has in Destroit, Chesne.
despot, and many other words.
Boutron (called Major), Marguerite. Daughter of Etienne Boutron,
above, born Sept. 15. 1709.
Boutron, (called Major) Marie Angelique, daughter of Etienne Boutron,
baptized July 5, 1707.
Boyer, Zacharie. Voyageur, came May 20, 1705.
Boyer, Jean. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Brabant, Michel. Voyageur, came Aug. 2, 1707.
Breunel, Anne (probably intended for Anne Bruneau, which see).
Wife of Louis Normand.
Brisset. Bernard. Came May 18. 1708.
Bruneau Anne. Wife of Louis Normand dit Labrierre.
Brunet, Francois dit Bourbonnais. Came May 30, 1705.
Buet, Rene. Came as hargeman May 30, 1705.
Butard, ?? Wife of ??. She died Dec. 10, 1724, aged 30 to 32 years.
Cabazier, Charles. Voyageur, came June 13, 1707.
Cadieu, Pierre. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Cadillac. See De La Mothe.
Caillomeau, Louis. Came Sept. 6, 1710. This name probably should be
Camerand. See Chouet.
Campau, Jacques (the name is also spelled Campo, Campos, Campeau and Campot).
Blacksmith, came Sept. 3, 1708. His wife was Cecile Catin. He was buried
May 14, 1751, aged 78 years.
Campau, Jean. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Campau. Jeanne. Daughter of Michel Campau.
Campau Louis, son of Jacques Campau. He married Marie Louise Robert,
widow of Francois Pelletier, and daughter of Pierre Robert and
Angelique Tholme, Jan. 7. 1724.
Campau, Marguerite, daughter of Michel Campau, baptized March 2, 1708.
Campau, Marie Angelique. Daughter of Jacques Campau, born Dec. 6, 1708.
Campau, Michel. Farmer, came Aug. 3, 1707. His wife was Jeanne Masse.
He died before 1740.
Campau, Paul Alexander. Son of Michel Campau, born Sep. 14, 1700.
He married Charlotte Sioneau, daughter of Mathurin Sioneau and
Marie Charlotte Dubeau, Feb. 15, 1740.
Cardinal, Jacques. Voyageur, came Oct. 13, 1707. Died May 17, 1724,
aged 84 years.
Cardinal, Jacques. Son of the preceding, came Oct. 13, 1707. His wife
was Jeanne Dugue, and third son Pierre, was baptized Aug.30, 1729.
They already had a daughter Jeanne, who acted as god-mother to
the infant Pierre. Jeanne married Laurent Parent.
Cardinal, Marie. Wife of Jacques Hubert dit la Croix, with her
husband and one child, she set out from Montreal for Detroit, May 22, 1709.
Cardinal, Pierre. Came Sept. 6. 1701.
Caron, Vital. Came April 2, 1707.
Carriere, Antoine, (he signs the church record Hantoine Carrier, in 1710.)
His parents. Andre Carriere and Cecile Jannot, lived on St. Paul street,
Montreal. He first came to Detroit, April 11, 1707, as a voyageur.
Casse. (called St. Aubin), Jean. This is a good illustration
of the change of French names. The family name of Casse has been
so completely lost through years of use of the nick name, that
this man's descendants are universally known as St. Aubin, and
there are many of them in Detroit today. I have grouped them all
under this name. Jean Casse's wife was Marie Louise Gautier. He
died Feb. 27, 1759, aged more than 100 years.
Casse (called St. Aubin), Jean Baptiste. Died of smallpox Feb. 25, 1733,
aged 27 or 28 years. A great many people died in the winter of 1733-4,
of smallpox. Jean Baptiste St. Aubin married Magdeleine Pruneau,
daughter of Jean Pruneau and Suzanne Bellanger, of Quebec, July 31, 1731.
Casse (called St. Aubin), Jacques, son of Jean Casse and Marie Louise Gautier.
He married Catherine Vien, daughter of Ignace Vien and Angelique Du Sable,
Dec. 21, 1745.
Casse (called St. Aubin), Marie Anne, daughter of Jean (or Jean Baptiste) Casse
and Marie Louise Gautier. Born Oct. 5, 1710. She married Charles Chauvin
(blacksmith), Oct. 27, 1726. There was another daughter, Agathe Casse, who
married Nicolas Campau. dit Niagara.
Casse (called St. Aubin), Pierre, son of Jean Casse. Baptized May 2, 1709.
Catin, Cecile, wife of Jacques Campau. She died before 1732. Her
daughter, Marianne Campau, married Joseph Bondy July 28, 1732,
and her son, Claude, married Catherine Casse (dit St. Aubin),
daughter of Jean Casse, Jan. 22, 1742.
Catinet, Joseph, of Pointe aux Tremble, near Montreal, was in Detroit
July 26, 1707.
Channet (called Camirand), Andre, sergeant of the troops in this country.
His wife was Anne Pastorel.
Channet (called Camirand). Andre, son of above. Born May 13, 1708.
Channet (called Camirand), Pierre, son of Andre senior. Born about Apr., 1710.
Chanteloup.,Pierre, farmer. Acted as godfather to Jean Bombardier,
July 18, 1707. His wife came to Detroit April 11, 1707.
Charbonneau, Joseph. Came April 25, 1707.
Charbonneau, Michel. Came April 17, 1707. Brother of above.
Charnic. See du Charnic.
Charlet, Francois. His wife was Marthe Forstier.
Charlet, Pierre, son of above. Born May 3. 1709.
Charpentier, Jean. Came April 2, 1707.
Chauvillon, Charlotte, wife of Jean Barthe, dit Belleville.
Chauvin, Gilles, voyageur. Came June 7, 1706. He and Louis Normand
were in partnership.
Chauvin, Jean Baptiste, voyageur. Came June 14, 1706.
Chauvin, Louis, voyageur. Came June 14, 1706. Brother of above.
Cheauonvouzon, Louis Antoine, surnamed Quarante Sols, chief of
the Huron nation. He was a verv prominent and Influential Indian
and frequent reference is made to him, both by Cadillac and by
the Jesuit father's at Mackinac. He was baptized April 27, 1707,
having as a godfather Cadillac himself. He died the same day, aged 48 years.
Chesne, Charles, son of Pierre Chesne and Louise Batty. He
married Catherine Sauvage, daughter of Jacques Sauvage and
Marie Catherine Rieul, Jan. 18, 1722.
Chesne, Francois, voyageur. Came Sept. 25. 1707.
Chesne, Marie, daughter of Pierre Cliesne and Jeanne Bailli.
She married (first) Jacques Montboef, dit Godfroy,
and after his death she married Jacques Boutin, Sept. 16, 1733.
There is a record that Marie Chesne died Feb. 13, 1738. From
Marie Chesne have descended all the Godfroys of French
extraction in and about Detroit.
Chesne, Pierre. Came June 13. 1707. His wife was Jeanne Bailli, she
died in 1700, she is sometimes referred to as Louise Batty. The name
has been slightly changed in spelling, though not in sound, by his
descendants. He was the Detroit ancestor of the present Chene family.
Chesne, Pierre. Son of shove Pierre Chesne. He had two wives;
first on May 25, 1728, he married Marie Magdellne Roy, a daughter of
Pierre Roy; this marriage took place at Fort St. Phillipe, village of
the Miamis. She died of smallpox Oct. 20, 1732, and in 1726 he
married his second wife, Louise Barrois, daughter of Francois Lothenane
dit Barrois; and Marianne Sauvage. Pierre Chesne was an interpreter
and sometimes called La Butte. He was born about 1697.
Chevalier, Jean. Came May 30, 1705. There is a record that
Angelique Chevalier, daughter of the late Jean Baptiste Chevalier
and the late Francoise Alavoine of this parish married
Antoine Nicolas Lauzon, Feb. 27, 1769.
Chevalier, Michel. Came Oct. 10, 1710.
Chevalier, Paul. Came July 12. 1702. His wife was Agathe Campau.
They lived on St. Paul street, Montreal. Paul, Jean and Robert
Chevalier, Robert. Came June 15, 1706.
Chornic, Jean Baptiste.
Chouet, (called Camerand) Andre.
Chouet, Louis, called Lagiroflee. Soldier in company of Cabana,
captain. He was son of Jean Chouet and Marie Magdeleine Magdile.
Before setting out for Detroit, May 25, 1701, he gave
his property, in event of his death, to Mary Magdeleine Delisle.
Cirier, Martin. Son of Nicolas Cirier and Catherine Prevoost of
the parish of St. Denis d'Argenteuil at Paris. He was a soldier of
the company de la Champagne and married Ann Bone, June 12, 1710.
I find the name spelled Sirier sometimes, but Martin could write
and he spelled it Cirier.
Clairambaut, Francois, esquire sieur D'Aigremont.
Commissary of the marine in Canada, sub-delegate of the Intendant
and deputy appointed to visit the most advanced posts. He
visited Detroit, Fort Pontchartrain, July 29, 1708.
Cobtron. see Marsac.
Colin, Michel, called Laliberte. Came in 1706.
Collet, Pierre, voyageur. Came June 15, 1706.
Compein (called L'Esperance) Bonaventure. Soldier and farmer.
His wife was Catherine Laplante.
Compein (called L'Esperance), Marie Catherine, daughter of Bonaventure,
above. She was baptized Nov. 14, 1707.
Compien (called L'Esperance) Pierre, son of Bonaventure, above.
Was born Jan. 12, 1710.
Corton, Pierre, called St. Jean. Came May 30, 1705, as bargeman.
Cosset, Francois. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Couk, Marguerite, wife of Francois Masse. Marguerite Couque is referred to
as the wife of the late Jean Fafare, and Marguerite Kouque, as the wife
of sieur Masse. These may be the same party.
Coup, Isabelle. Came to Detroit as early as April 27, 1704.
Coutant, (called Rancontre) Francois Judile, a soldier. His wife was
Marie Agathe Bluteau, above.
Coutant, Jean. A soldier of the company of Lorimier. He was
buried Sept. 17, 1732, aged 65 years.
Coutant (called Rancontre), Louis. Son of Francois, above, baptized
Feb. 13, 1708.
Couturier, Joseph, voyageur. Came Sept. 6, 1710.
Cosson, Ange. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Cusson, Charles, voyageur. Came April 20, 1709.
Cusson, Jean Baptiste. Came April 11, 1707.
Cusson, Joseph. Came Oct. 7, 1706.
Cusson, Nicolas. Voyageur. Came Oct. 7, 1706.
Dandonneau, Marie Francoise, Wife of the second marriage of Henry Belisle,
surgeon. Died May 8, 1711, aged about 50 years.
Dardennes, Toussainte. Came May 12, 1707.
D'Argenteuil (Probably Pierre), gardener.
David, Therese. Wife of Jacob de Marsac de Cobtrion dit Desrochers. She
was buried Sept. 24, 1727, aged 66 years.
Daze, Charles. Came July 16, 1702.
De Broyeux, Francois. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
De Couague, Charles Jr. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
De Gaigne, Jacques Jr., 18 years old. Agreed to work for Jerome Merilat,
dit Sansquartier for two years.
De La Forest, Francois. Captain of the troops of the marine in this country.
Like many other French words the letter S is frequently dropped in writing
this name, so that we find it De La Foret.
De La March, Dominique. Recollet priest, lecturer in theology, pastor
of Ste. Anne's.
De La Marque, Marianne. Wife of Alphonse de Tonty. She was the widow of
Jean Baptiste Nolan, and had a daughter, Louise Suzanne Nolan, who married
Charles Francois de Mezieres, esquire, sieur de Leperueinche, Dec. 17, 1725.
De La Mothe Cadillac, Antoine. The founder of Detroit. He was born in 1661,
the son of Jean de Ia Mothe and Jeanne de Malenfant. Married Marie Therese
Guyon, daughter of Denis Guyon at Quebec, June 21. 1687.
In simply mentioning Antoine De La Muthe Cadillac as a citizen
of Detroit, justice is not done to the name of a man who
played a most important pirt in the history of America.
The birthplace and the exact date of the birth of Cadillac are
unknown. He was probably born in 1661, in that part of France
called Gascony. He had a good education and it is not at all
improbable that he studied for the priesthood. Perhaps he
studied with the Jesuits, and then left their order, for he
certainly displayed a thorough hatred of them through his age
and came to America to seek his life. He entered the army at an
early age and came to America to seek his fortune in 1683. He
first settled at Port Royal (Annapolis, seaport of Nova Scotia)
and built a house, which was destroyed by the English under
Sir William Phips in 1690. At Port Royal he fell in with
Francois Guyon, who was a privateer. In his employment with
Guyon he became familiar with the coastline of America and with
the details of American cities.
HE TRAVELED FAR.
One of the earliest maps of Boston, made by the noted map maker,
Franquelin, bears upon its face the approval of Cadillac as to
its correctness, and a report of Cadillac in 1601, warns French
navigators of the dangers of Hell Gate at New York.
His services as a pilot were sought after and his opinions regarding the
English Atlantic settlements and the best mode of attacking them were
so highly praised that the king (Louis XIV.) sent for him from America on
more than one occasion.
In 1687 he married Marie Therese Guyon, the niece of his employer, at Quebec.
In 1688 he received a grant of a large tract of land in Maine, which
was then French territory, and also the Island of Mount Desert, which his
descendants again obtained in later years. His wife and family were living
at Port Royal at the time of its capture by the English in 1690 and
the destruction of his house left him penniless.
He had been a lieutenant in the troops, and in 1693, was created a
captain with the rank of ensign in the navy. Frontenac had been reappointed
to his old position as governor of New France and a close friendship
sprang up between himself and Cadillac that lasted during their joint lives.
In 1694 he was appointed commandant of Mackinac. Here he remained
four years, spending the time in looking after the Indians and quarreling
with the Jesuits. He seeins to have taken great delight in bothering the
Jesuit priests and exciting them with his sharp letters. His writings are
voluminous, and not always truthful.
RUM VS. RELIGION.
Great attention was paid to his reports by the colonial office, but an
occasional remark by the minister of foreign affairs that "He lies like a
Gascon," written on the margin of a report of his, gives one clearly to
understand that his sentiments were taken with a grain of allowance.
One of the most important questions of discussion with the Jesuits
was the sale of eau de vie (rum) to the indians. The priests alleged that
it was unnecessary trafiic and injurious to the morals of the savages,
while Cadillac maintained that the use of the stimulant in restricted
quantities was necessary, and moreover, that if the savages did not get what
they wanted at Mackinac they would go to the English to obtain it, and
if they went to the English they might be converted to protestantism,
and thereby their souls would be lost, and he asked the missionaries
which was the most profitable thing to do. Looking to the welfare of
the Indian alone, was it better to be occasionally drunk on French brandy
and his soul saved or occasionally drunk on English rum and be eternally lost?
THE FOUNDER OF DETROIT.
He was not exclusively occupied with his attention to his
missionary friends, but found time to explore the country and
ascertain a better place than Mackinac for building a fort
which would resist the encroachments of the English. He
resigned his position as commandant in 1698 and went to Europe
to place before the king a proposition for founding a colony on
the Detroit river. His plan was approved and he returned in
1700 with authority to proceed on his errand as soon as
possible. I have, before this, given a short account of his
journey to Detroit and the founding of Fort Pontchartrain,
which was the original and official name of this post, on the
24th of July, 1701. The unpublished accounts of what Cadillac
found here are interesting in the extreme.
It was the paradise of North Amenca. Here he founded a colony
protected by a garrison of farmer soldiers, and his colony was a
success as long as he remained, but he was removed from his command
in 1710 and appointed governor of Louisiana. He reached his new post
in 1713, and remained until 1717, when he returned to France. He was
subsequently appointed governor of Castel Sarrazin, in France, and
retained that office until his death.
De La Mothe Cadillac, Antoine. Ensign in the troops, son of Calillac.
De La Mothe Cadillac, Antoine (or Jean Antoine), son of Cadillac.
Buried in the church April 9, 1709, aged 2 years 2 1/2 months. I think
this is the same as Jean Antoine, who was baptized Jan. 19, 1707.
De La Mothe Cadillac, Francois. Son of Cadillac. Born March 29, 1709.
De La Mothe Cadillac, Jacques. Son of Cadillac. Cadet in the troops
of the detachment of marines.
De La Mothe Cadillac, Marie Agatha. Daughter of Cadillac. Born, Dec. 28, 1707.
De La Mothe Cadillac, Rene Louis. Son of Cadillac. Born, March 17, 1710.
De Launay, Joseph. Came Sept. 27, 1710.
De L'Halle, Constantin. Recollect priest, killed in 1723, his body was
exhumed, transported and reburied within the church of St. Anne.
De Liard, see Bouet.
De Lisle, see Bienvenue.
De Lorme, see Fafard.
Delpeche, Francois. Came May 17, 1710.
Demers, Maximilien. Came May 30, 1705.
Deniau, Cherubin. Recollect priest, pastor of St. Anne's.
Deniau, Rene. Died July, 1730, aged 80 years.
De Paris, Denis.
Depre (or Despre), Joseph.
De Ranee, see La Gautier.
Derruon, Pierre, esquire sieur de Budemonid.
Dervisseau, Julien. Lieutenant in the troops.
Desautels, Gilbert, dit Lapointe. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Des Jardins, Suzanne. Wife of Pierre La Fleur.
Desloriers, Jean Baptiste. Jean Baptiste du Fournel dit Desloriers,
aged 50 years, was buried Oct. 31, 1731.
Desmoulins, Charlotte, dit Philis, daughter of Jacques Desmoulins, and
Charlotte Sanarias, was born Nov. 22, 1709, and died Jan. 8, 1710.
Desmoulins, Jacques dit Philis. His wife was Charlotte Sanarias.
Desmoulins, Jacques. Son of the above Jacques Desmoulins; was baptized
March 30, 1708 and died April 14, 1728.
Desmoulins, Marie. Wife of Blaise Sontieureuse.
Desnoyers, Joseph. Married Magdeleine Robert, daughter of Pierre Robert
and Angelique Tholme.
Desrocher, or Derocher, see Marsac.
Desrosiers, Jean Morean. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Desroziers, Joseph, called Dutremble. Came Sept. 27, 1710.
Devinon, Pierre, esquire Sieur de Budemond. Lieutenant in the troops.
Dizier, Michel, called Sans Quartier. Farmer.
Dounay, Anthoine. Came in the summer of 1704.
Dubor, Dominique. Came as voyageur, June 12, 1706.
Du Chornic, Louis.
Ducharme, Joseph. Came Sept. 10, 1710.
Ducharme,, Louis. Voyageur, brother of Joseph. Came May 22, 1709.
Duclos, Jacques. A so]dier.
Dumouchel, Francoise. Daughter of Bernard Dumouchel dit Laroche. On the
sixth day of July 1703 she agreed to go to Detroit to serve
Mr. and Madam De La Mothe (Cadillac), for two years at 180 livres per year.
Dumouchel, Paul. Came May 15, 1708.
Duffant, Marie Renie.
Du Figuier, (see Fournier).
Dufresne, Marie Magdelaine, wife of Pierre Mallet.
Dumay, Jacques. Jacques Pierre Danau esquire sieur de Muy. Chevalier of
the Royal and Military order of St. Louis, died May 20, 1758.
Dumay, Marguerite. Wife of Andre Bombardier.
Dupuis, Antoine. (called Beauregard). Farmer. His wife was
Marie Anne Marandeau.
Dupuis, Antoine. Son of above, was horn June 21, 1707.
Dupuis, Joseph. Son of Antoine Sr. above, was born Jan 31, 1709.
Dupuis, Marie Anne. Daughter of Antoine above, was born March 13, 1710.
Duroy, Pierre, dit Deslauriers. Soldier in the company of De La Mothe Cadillac.
He came April 11, 1707. He is also mentioned as a soldier in the company
of Dulhud. (Duluth).
Du Vestin, Salomon Joseph.
Durand (or Durant) Jean. Farmer.
Dussault, Marie. Wife of Jacques Langlois.
Du Sault, Marie, fille mineure. The parents' names are not given.
Dutan, Jacques. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Dutremble, Joseph. Came Sept. 28, 1706.
Dutremble, Jean Baptiste. Came in 1706.
Du Vant, called La Franchise, Pierre. Soldier de la Compagnie de la Corne.
Esteve, Pierre. Called La Jeunessse. Farmer, see Stebre.
Estienne, Estienne. Brother of Dominique Estienne. Came April 26, 1707.
Estienne, Jacques. Came April i3, 1707 with a canoe load of merchandise
for sieur de Bourmont, ensign in the troops.
Fafard, Charles, dit Delorme. He came April 25, 1707. His father
was Francois Fafard, dit Delorme. The descendants from this
pioneer are universally called Delorme.
Fafard, Etienne dit Delorme. Son of Francois Fafard, born Sept. 24, 1708.
Fafard, Francois, dit Delorme. Farmer and interpreter for the
king. He died Jan. 28, 1734, aged about 80 years. His first
wife was Magdeleine Marguerite Jobin and his second wife was Barbe Loisel.
Fafard, Joseph. Son of Francois, above. He was born Sept. 24, 1708.
He and Etienne were twins.
Fafard, Magdeleine. Daughter of Francois Fafard, above. She married
Prudent Robert, Jan. 7, 1711.
Fafard, Marie Joseph, dit Delorme, daughter of Francois above, married
Pierre Auclair, of Charlesburg.
Fafard, Marie Marguerite, daughter of Francois above. Married
Michel Bissilon, June 30, 1710.
Fafard, Marguerite. daughter of Jean Fafard and Marguerite Couck.
Married Jean Baptiste Turpin, May 5, 1710.
Fanereau, Charles, voyageur. Lived in Detroit Oct. 6. 1708.
Faverau, Pierre. Called La Grandeur.
Fayolet, Pierre, called St. Pierre. A soldier of the company of St. Ours.
He was in Detroit May 2, 1709, and acted as god-father to Pierre Casse.
Ferron, Antoine, farmer,
Filiatreau, Jacques, voyageur. Came May 30, 1705. He lived at
Lachine and never resided in Detroit, though he came here several times.
Filie, Michel, esquire, sieur de Therigo, sergeant of troops. Commissioned
to bear letters from France to Cadillac. He came Oct. 16, 1706.
Fortier, Catherine, wife of Gabriel Baudreau. They were married at Montreal
Aug, 15, 1701.
Fortier, Marthe (or Marie Marthe), wife of Francois Chalut dit Chanteloup.
They were married in Montreal June 10, 1706. She was a sister of Catherine
Fournier, Louis Rene, sieur du Figuier, ensign in the troops of
this country, performing the functions of major of the troops
in Fort Pontchartrain. He was born at Montreal May 14, 1673.
His mother's name was Helene Du Figuier.
Frapier, Marie Magdeleine, wife of Pierre Stebre, dit la Jeunesse.
They were married at Quebec April 12, 1706, and she died at Detroit,
Dec. 22. 1759, aged 80 years.
Frigon, Francois. He was born in Normandy and came to Detroit May 30, 1705.
Frotant, Angelique. Probably Proteau, which see.
Gagnier, Jacques. Came May 17, 1710.
Galarneau, Louise, wife of Francois Marquet. She was born Feb. 2, 1690,
and married April 26, 1706.
Gallien, Marie Anne. Her first husband was Jerome (Hieronymus) Marillac,
dit Sansquartier, and her second husband was Bernard Phillipe.
Gareau (or Garro or Garraud), Dominique. Came Oct. 3, 1708. He was
born at Boucherville Jan. 13, 1684.
Gareau, Jean, came Sept. 25, 1707. He was born at Boucherville Nov. 3, 1679.
Gareau, Pierre. Came as bargeman May 30. 1705. He was born at Boucherville
May 1, 1673. He lived in St. Paul street, Montreal. He was sometimes
called St. Onge, Saintonge, or Xaintonge. The three Gareaus were
brothers. Dominique and Jean never resided in Detroit, but came
here together in 1708 and at various other times. Pierre owned a
house and lot in the village, conveyed to him by the name of Xaintonge.
Gatineau, Louis, sieur Duplessis, came to Detroit June 21, 1706.
He was married Jan. 22, 1710, to Jeanne Lemoyne, at Batiscan. He is
described as a merchant of Quebec.
Gaultier, Marie Louise, wife of Jean Casse, called St. Aubin.
Gaultier (or Gautier), Pierre, dit Sagultoira. Came May 22, 1709.
He was born March 25, 1669, and died July 25, 1754.
Gazaille, Jean, dit St. Germain. Came Sept. 10, 1710.
Germain, Alexis, son of Robert Germain, a native of the parish
of Pointe aux Tremble near Quebec, and came to Detroit May 9, 1708.
He was killed May 19, 1712, by a gunshot given by the Ytaganish Indians,
with whom he was fighting at Detroit.
Germain, Robert. Came May 18, 1708. He was a brother of Alexis.
Born at Quebec Sept. 8, 1680.
Gervais, Etienne de Bourguion. July 10, 1703, he agreed to go to
Detroit as a hunter.
Giard, Anthoine. Came May 30, 1705. He was born at Montreal Aug. 31, 1661.
Giard, Gabriel. He was born at Montreal April 15, 1675, and came to
Detroit as a bargeman May 30, 1705. He was married three times.
Giguiere, Jean Baptiste, being about to set out for Detroit June 28, 1701,
he made a present of his property in the event of his death to
Louise Maignan. He returned to Montreal and married this lady Jan. 22, 1704.
He died April 18, 1750.
Giguiere, Robert, brother of Jean Baptiste. He was born Jan. 28, 1663,
and died at Montreal Dec. 10, 1711.
Girardin, Joseph. Came Aug. 26, 1708.
Gode (or Gaude), Jacques. Came as voyageur Nov. 6, 1707. He was
married Aug. 15, 1743, to Marie Louise St. Martin, of Detroit.
Godefroy (or Godfroy), Jacques, dit Mauboeuf. Paul Chevalier and
Jacques Godefroy, dit Mauboeuf, voyageurs, and Joseth Senecal,
toolmaker and voyageur, formed a partnership Sept.10, 1710,
to carry on the business of trading at Detroit. To this business
Chevalier contributed 255 livres, Senecal 165 livres and Godefroy 43 livres
and two guns. The partnership was to continue for two years, and if any of
the partners died in that time another man would be taken in to fill
the place. Gains and losses to be shared equally. Godfroy married
Marie Anne Chesne at Detroit Nov. 20, 1730.
Gognet, Francois, called Sansoucy, a soldier.
Gouin, Joseph, came May 19, 1708, brining to Dufiguier, major
of Fort Pontchartrain, two barrels of rum (eau de vie), one
barrel of salt, two barrels of powder, a small parcel of goods
and two bags of bullets in all, 400 pounds.
Gouin, Louis. Came May 18, 1708.
Gourion (or Gorion), Antoine, son of Jean Baptiste Gourion. Born April 26, 1708.
Gourion, Jean Baptiste, sergeant in the troops at Detroit (1708), and farmer.
His wife was Louise Chaudillon, though it is given as Louise Rhodillon
in St. Anne's church.
Gros, Jean Baptiste. Born at Montreal Dec. 22, 1672.
Guillemot, Marie Chretienne. Came to Detroit in the employ of Cadillac
Aug. 30, 1710. She was a daughter of Jacques Francois Guillemot and
Madeleine Dupont. Was born at Montreal Sept. 29, 1695. Returned there
and married Jean Jacquiers, Nov. 24, 1715, and died Nov. 23. 1734.
Guillet, Paul, merchant. Born 1690. Died in Montreal June 7, 1753.
His full name seems to have been Paul Alexander Guillet.
He acted as godfather to Paul Alexander Campau Sept. 14, 1709,
and the infant appears to have been named after him. He came to
Detroit May 19, 1708.
Guyon, Jean, dit Lachapelle. Came Sept. 6, 1710.
Guyon, Marie Therese, wife of Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac. Born
at Quebec April 9, 1671. Married June 21, 1687. (The first woman in Detroit).
Hamelin, Rene, voyageur. Came May 18, 1710.
Hemart (or Haimart), Marie Louise. Born Dec. 1, 1709. Daughter
of Pierre Haimart.
Hemart (or Haimart), Pierre, farmer and soldier in the company
of Mr. Lorimier. Married Marie Laland June 12, 1706.
The records of St. Anne contain a certificate of baptism, Oct. 20, 1707,
of Francois Delainart, son of Pierre Delainart and Marie Filiastreau.
Fr. Tanguay concludes that Hemart and Delainart are the same.
Henaux, Pierre, Sr., came to Detroit Sept. 27, 1708. Perhaps
the name should be Hunault.
Henaux, Pierre, Jr. Came Sept. 27, 1708.
Hubert, Ignace, called Lacroix. Came April 20, 1709. He was a son
of Ignace Hubert, of Boucherville.
Hubert, Jacques, dit Lacroix, Sr. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Hubert, Jacques, dit Lacroix. Came in 1706. He was born May 12, 1684,
and married Sept. 5, 1705. to Marie Cardinal. He was a son of Jacques Hubert,
Hubert, Louis, voyageur. Came Nov 6. 1707. He was a brother of Ignace, above.
Hubert, Pierre. son of Jacques Hubert. di Ia Croix. and Marie
Cardinal. Was horn at Detroit Dec. 11. 1709, and died Oct. 11.
1724. The family Is generally known b-v the name of Lacroix.
Hubert, Pierre, voyageur. Came Aug. 11, 1710. He was a brother
of Jacques Hubert, above, and married Francoise Cardinal.
Huet, Pierre, called Duluth. Came April 2. 1707. He was a son
of Joseph Huet, born Nov. 12, 1682.
Janot, Pierre. Came May 22, 1709. Nephew of Robert Janot.
Janot, Robert (called La Chapelle). Came April 2, 1707. He was
uncle to Joseph Bazinet, dit Tourblanche.
Jardis, Francois, called Rencontre. Farmer and lot owner in the village.
Jean, Raymond, dit Godon. Contracted Oct. 12, 1703, to go to Detroit
as a farmer.
Jobin, Marie Magdeleine. Wife of Francois Fafart, dit Delorme, interpreter.
She died at Detroit, Jan. 29. 1711, aged about 40 years.
Joly, Jean, surnamed Jolycoeur, sergeant in the troops. He was a
native of the parish of Bury, diocese of Xaintes. Died at Detroit, Mich.,
March 20, 1707, and buried in the cemetery of Fort Pontchartrain.
Juillet, Jean, called Laplante. Came to Detroit as a bargeman May 30, 1705.
Labatier (or Abatis) Jean. Owned a lot in the village. Jean Labattu,
Cochant, dit Champagne, a soldier. Died in Detroit, Feb. 15, 1712,
I think this is the same person.
Laberge, Guillaume. Entered into an agreement Oct. 12, 1703
to come to Detroit as a farmer.
Labrierre. see Normand.
La Ferriere, Genevieve. wife of Francois Bienvenue, dit Delisle.
Born Dec. 8. 1679. She died before 1709. Her family name was Charon.
Lafleur. see Poirier.
Laforte. see Levoir.
La Forest, Marguerite, wife of Antoine Levroir. She was born in 1689
and married Antoine Terou Laferte (Levroir) June 10, 1706.
La Grandeur. see Faverau.
La Jeunesse. see Stebre.
La Jeunesse, Etienne, came in 1706.
Lalande, Marie, wife of Pierre Hemart.
Laloire, ??, farmer. There is nothing from which the first name can be
determined. Tanguay gives the name Allaire as the same surname as this.
Lamareux, Francois, sieur de St. Germain. Came April 2, 1707.
Francois Lamoureux, dit St. Germain, a merchant, was born 1675
and died Dec. 30, 1740.
La Marque, Pierre, called Sans Soucy. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
He lived at Laprairie, and his wife was Magdeleine Delisle.
La Montague, called Pierre Mouet.
La Mothe, Magdalaine, Cadillac's daughter.
La Mothe, Marie Therese, daughter of Cadillac, baptized Feb. 2, 1704.
Lamy, Joseph. Set out from Montreal Sept. 6. 1708, to conduct
Madam Ranez to Detroit. Lamy drifted farther west to Kaskaskia,
where he became one of the trustees of the church in 1717, and was
killed by the Indians in 1725.
Lanarias, Charlotte, probably Sanarias, which see.
Langlois, Antoine, son of Jacques Langlois. Born Nov. 13, 1709,
buried July 26, 1710, at Detroit, aged about 8 1/2 months.
Langlois, Jacques, farmer and blacksmith. Born in 1676, he
married Marie Dussault. He resided for a time in Detroit, but
returned to Montreal, and died there Jan. 30, 1733.
Langlois, Paul, farmer. Came April 11, 1707.
Laplante, Catherine. Wife of Bonaventure Compien dit L'Esperance.
Her name, according to the record of baptisms in Sorel, where she was born,
was Marie Catherine Badaillac, dit Laplante, and she was married at Montreal,
June 10, 1716.
Laporte, see Aguenet.
Laprairie, Julien. Came Aug. 19, 1710.
Larivee, Jean. Came May 19, 1708. He was born Aug. 12, 1667, and
died Sept. 9, 1729.
L'arramee-Tanguay mentions a man by this name, his first name
being unknown, who died in Montreal, Sept. 23, 1736.
La Salle, Jean. A soldier of the company of Duluth, native of
Peyrourade in Bearn, died Jan. 24, 1707. His body was buried in
the church of the Fort Pontchartrain du Detroit.
Laude, Joseph, dit Mata. Agreed to go to Detroit as farmer, Oct. 12, 1703.
La Vallee, Jean Baptiste. Soldier of the company of the Cassagne,
native of Quintin, bishoprick of St. Brieux, in Brittany.
Died Nov. 19, 1711, aged about 30 years.
Lavois, Jacques, dit St. Amour. Came as bargeman. May 30, 1705.
He was a soldier of the company of La Corne, and married Marie Barbe Cesar,
at Montreal, Nov, 28, 1711.
Leboeuf, Pierre. Came as bargeman. May 30, 1705. His wife was
Marie Francoise Auzon. He never came here to reside permanently,
but some of his children did.
Le Coutant, dit Rencontre, Magdelaine, daughter of Francois Judit Le Coutant,
dit Rencontre, born Feb. 5, 1710.
Leduc, Jean Baptiste, son of Jean Leduc of Montreal. Came Oct. 11. 1710.
He was born in 1684, and married Marie Catherine Descary.
Lefebvre, Louis. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. His father was
Jean Baptist Lafebvre, of Montreal.
Lefebvre, Nicholas. Came May 22, 1709. Voyageur. (His father,
Jean Baptiste Lefebvre, lived on St. Peter's river.)
Legautier, Francois, sieur de la Vallee Ranee (see Deranee). Lieutenant
in the detachment of marines in Canada. Came Oct. 2, 1709, died Nov. 12. 1710.
Lager, Bourgery. Came April 2, 1707.
Leger, called Parisien. Marie Jeanne, daughter of Pierre Lager,
baptized Dec. 15, 1707.
Lager (dit Parisien), Marie Jeanne, daughter of Pierre Leger, dit Parisien.
Born Aug. 9. 1709. These two children of the same parents bear the same name.
There is no record or the death of either.
Lager (called Parisien), Pierre, farmer. His wife was Jeanne Boilard,
to whom he was married at Quebec, May 15, 1706.
Legros, Jean, called Laviolette, born Dec. 22, 1673. He married Marie Buet,
Nov. 24, 1700. He came to Detroit Sept. 6, 1708.
Legros, Nicolas. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. He was an elder brother of
Jean and married Marie Charlotte Turpin.
Le Maire, Charles, dit St. Gerinain, voyageur. Came Oct. 17, 1707, with
a canoe of merchandise for the Recollet fathers. He was a captain of
militia in Lachine. Born 1676, died 1751.
Le May, Michel. Agreed April 25, 1704, to come to Detroit as a brigadier
(foreman of a boat's crew).
Le Mire, Jean, de Marsolet. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
His mother's name was Louise Marsolet.
La Moyne, Alexis, sieur de Moniere. Came before Oct. 2, 1709.
La Moine, Jacques, merchant. Came June 21, 1706.
Le Moine, Rene, merchant.
La Moyne, Marie, wife of Francois Bienvenue, dit Delisle, married in 1708.
He had another (first) wife, Genevieve Laferiere.
Marie La Moyne, aged about 70 years, was buried Sept. 6. 1764.
La Moyne, Rene (or Rene Alexander), Came Oct. 12, 1706. Born in
1668, he married Marie Renee La Boulanger, Feb. 2, 1712.
La Page, Marie. Born in Montreal, 1684, she married June 12, 1706,
at Montreal, Francois Beauceron. The date of his death is not given,
but it was before 1709, for she is mentioned at that time as a widow.
She is the only woman to whom any land was conveyed by Cadillac, within
the palisades. Her husband was living at this time (1707), but she was
probably separated from him, as he is not mentioned. She must have
subsequently married Josenh Vaudry, for they are called legal
husband and wife in 1720, and had a child, Mary Magdeleine. It
is with the name of Marie Lapage that the first great social
scandal of Detroit is connected. The pages of St. Anne's record
with glaring plainness the false step of this unfortunate woman.
It is impossible to tell, now, the penance that she performed in
atonement for her wrong-doing. The church record, possibly,
operated to deter others from following in her path. Whether the
man lost prestige or not is unknown, but we do know that he left
Detroit about the time this affair became public, and returned
to Montrea, where he was appointed the trusted agent and attorney
for Cadillac, and retained that position as long as Cadillac
remained at Detroit.
Le Page, Marie Therese, daughter of Marie Le Page, widow of the
late Bausseron and of sieur Grandmenil, commis du Magazin. Born
July 24, 1709. This is the first record of an illegitimate
child. It is not profitable to trace the descent of this unfortunate.
Lescuyer, Anthoine, came May 28, 1708. He was born in Montreal May 28. 1688.
Lescuyer, Jean and Paul. Brothers. Came May 29, 1706. They,
with Jacques Minuille, brought 10 cattle and 3 horses from Fort Frontenac
to Detroit, for Cadillac. They were sons of Pierre Lescuyer, born in
Montreal June 16, 1681, and Feb. 15, 1676, respectively.
Lescuyer, Pierre. Came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. He was a
brother of the three preceding persons. Born in Mcntreal Feb. 9, 1674.
Lesieur, Jean Baptiste, dit Callot. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
L'Esperance, see Compien.
L'Espine, Marie Magdelaine wife of Joseph Parent. She was the daughter
of Jacques Marette, dit L'Espine.
L'Esquier, Pierre, voyageur.
La Tendre, Adele Genevieve, probably came to Detroit with
Mme. La Mothe Cadillac's wife, as she was god-mother to his daughter,
Marie Therese, in 1704.
Leveille, Laurent, came June 15, riO6. He was a Panis Indian.
Lavroir, called Laferte, Antoine. The name should be Antoine Theroux.
He was born in 1677 and died Feb. 22, 1759.
Levroir, Pierre, son of Antoine Levroir, above, baptized Feb. 22, 1707.
He married Rose Poitevin in 1733.
L'Isle, see Bienvenue.
Livernois, Francis. Francois Benoit, dit Livernois, came to Detroit,
April 2, 1707. He married Angelique Chagnon in 1710. The name Livernois
is quite common in Detroit now.
Loisel, Barbe, wife of Francois Legautier, Esq., sieur de Lavallee Ranee,
lieutenant. Set out to go to her said husband at Detroit, Sept. 6, 1708.
She was married three times. First to Pierre Roussel, then to Legautier,
and, in 1713, to Francois Fafard, dit Delorme.
Loranger, Joseph, dit Rivard, dit La Jauge. see Rivard.
Loranger, Nicholas, dit Rivard, voyageur, see Rivard.
Magdeleyne, Jean Baptiste, dit Ladouceur, came in 1706. He was
born in Montreal in 1681 and married Elizabeth Millet.
Magnant, Antoine, dit L'Esperance. He lived within the
palisades and owned a lot there, but he is described in Ste. Anne's
records as a citizen of Montreal (1708), a voyageur at
present at Fort Pontchartrain. He was born Sept. 24, 1682, at Laprairie.
Magnan, Gaspard. dit Champagne, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705.
He married Magdeleine Marsille, Feb. 9, 1699.
Major, see Boutran.
Malet, Antoine, son of Pierre Malet. Baptized Aug. 16, 1706. He
married Therese Mailhot, Aug. 11, 1730.
Mallet, Francois, son of Pierre Mallet, born July 28, 1708.
Mallet, Pierre, farmer, voyageur, citizen of Detroit. His wife
was Magdelelne Dufresne, widow of Francois Pelletier.
Mallet, Rene, voyageur, came Nov. 6, 1707. Apparently he was the father of
Pierre Mallet, and died at Montreal, Oct. 24, 1716.
Marces, Francois, a soldier.
Marcil, Andre, came May 17, 1710.
Marendeau, Marianne (or Maranda) wife of Antoine Dupuis, dit Beauregsrd.
They were married at Montreal, June 9, 1706, and she returned and died
there Jan. 8, 1730.
Marquet, Francois. His wife was Louise Galerneau, and they were married
April 26, 1706, at Quebec. They left Detroit some time before Cadillac did,
and their third child, Pierre, was born in Montreal in 1710.
Marquet, Joseph, son of Francois Marquet, born May 22, 1707.
Marquet, Marguerite, daughter of Francois Marquet, born March 20, 1709.
De Marsac de Cobtrou, Francois, son of Jacob de Marsac. Baptized
Oct. 22, 1706. He married Therese Cecile Campau in 1734, and one of
their daughters, Marie Louise, became the wife of Robert Navarre in 1762.
De Marsac de Cottrion, Jacques, son of Jacob de Marsac. Born Nov. 7, 1707,
died Dec. 24, 1745, aged about 40 years. The priest guessed at his age,
but the record shows that he was 38 years of age.
De Marsac de Cottrion, Jacob, sieur Desrochers, sergeant in a company in
the detachment of marines. His wife was Therese David. He was buried
April 27, 1747, aged 80 years. Their son Jacques married Marie Anne Chapoton,
daughter of Jean Chapoton, surgeon, Jan. 25, 1745.
Martiat, Jerome, dit Sansquartier (or Sanscartier), son of Maurice Martiac
and Jeanne Damiot, of the parish of Chaubouline, bishopric of Brines in
Limozin. Died June 10, 1709. He was a soldier of Detroit. His wife was
Marie Anne Gallien. His name is sometimes spelled Marillac.
Martiac, Magdeliene, daughter of Hierosmes Martiac (called Sansquartier).
Baptized Jan. 22, 1707.
Martiac (called Sans Quartier), Pierre Jerome, son of Jerome Martiac dit
Sans Quartier. Baptized March 28, 1709.
Martin Claude, came June 15, 1706.
Masse, Francois, farmer. His wife was Marguerite Couk, called Lafleur.
They were married in 1702. She had been the widow of Jean Fafard.
Masse, Jeanne, became the wife of Michel Campau in 1696. She had a daughter
Marie Anne Campau, who became the wife of Pierre Belleperche.
Masse, Michel. He lived in Montreal but visited Detroit.
Maurisseau, Jacques, voyageur. Came June 15, 1706.
Maurivan, Jacques. Came 1706.
Maurivan, Louis. Came 1706.
Melain, Marie, wife of Blaise Fondurose, a soldier. She was born in 1689,
married June 9, 1706, lived in Detroit several years, but returned to
Montreal and died there April 26, 1713.
Merssan, Jean, dit Lapierre. Came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. He is mentioned
as a Marguillier, or church trustee, probably of Quebec, by Tanguay. He was
born in 1685 and died April 16, 1718.
Michel, Jean, agreed to go to Detroit as farmer, Oct. 12, 1703.
He probably lived at St. Francois du Lac.
Mikitchia, Joseph. Slave belonging to Michel Bezailin: Teste Plate (flat head).
Baptized, March 10, 1710, 16 years old.
Milhet, (or Millet), Nicolas, came March 3, 1709. Jan. 4, 1712, he married
Minville (or Miville), Jacques. Came May 29, 1706. He, with
Paul and Jean Lascuyer brought 10 cattle and 3 horses from Fort Frontenac
to Detroit, for Cadillac. His wife was Catherine Lescuyer, of Montreal.
Moitie, Marie, wife of Pierre Chesne, according to Tanguay, married
Oct. 9, 1700, at Montreal. She was widow of Jean Maguan, and
died Dec. 31, 1727.
Monet, Pierre, see La Montagne.
Monjeau, Gabriel, voyageur. Came April 23, 1710. He was born in 1690 and
died April 27, 1718. He did not stop long in Detroit.
Monteil, Rene, dit Sansremission. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
He did not remain long in Detroit. He died at St. Ours, March 4, 1724.
Montfort, ??, soldier of the company of Desgly; found dead in the woods at
the foot of a tree, buried Dec. 21, 1709. I cannot find the first name of
Morand, Pierre. Came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. He died at Batiscan,
June 11, 1729.
Moreau, Joseph. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. His home was at Batiscan.
Morin, Moise, dit Chesnevert. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. He was a
sergeant in the company of Beaucour. Born in Poitiers, Poitou. He married
Magdeleine Monin, Nov. 26, 1707, and made his home at Quebec.
Morisseau, Louis. Came June 15, 1706.
Morisseau, Pierre. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Normand, Angelique, daughter of Louis Normand, dit Labriere. Born
June 20, 1707. She was married three times; to Jean De Launay,
to Jacques Beda, and to Jacques Hermier.
Normand, Louis, dit Labriere, tool maker. Came June 7, 1706, to
work at his trade. He was born at Quebec, Oct. 13, 1680. Married
Anne Bruneau, May 29, 1701, and died July 15, 1729.
Normand (called La Briere), Marie Therese, daughter of Louis Normand,
dit La Briere, born at Detroit, Sept. 1, 1705.
Ouabankikow, Marguerite, an Indian of the Miami tribe, the wife of Pierre Roy.
There is no record of her marriage, though the priest called her
a legal wife. She died of smallpox, Oct.31, 1732. She had six children,
baptized in the church at Detroit.
Pachot, Jean Marie Daniel. He was born July 30, 1694, and was the son of
Francois Vienay Pachot and Charlotte Francoise Juchereau. After his father's
death, his mother married Francois de la Forest, a lieutenant under Cadillac,
and afterwards commandant at Detroit.
Paquet, Jean. He was born in 1682, and Feb. 20, 1708, married Marie Charland.
Parent, Joseph, farmer, master toolmaker and brewer. His wife was
Magdeleine Marette, whom he married at Beauport, Jan. 31, 1690. On the
9th of March, 1706, he agreed with Cadillac to go to Detroit to work at his
trade for three years.
Parent, Marie, daughter of Joseph Parent and Magdeleine Marette, dit Lespine,
haptized Jan. 21, 1709.
Parent, Marie Madelaine, daughter of Joseph, above, born at Beauport,
Dec. 15, 1692, and came with her parents to Detroit between the years
1706 and 1709.
Parent, Marguerite, daughter of Joseph, above, born at Montreal, July 7, 1698.
Parisien (see Leger).
Pastorelle, Anne, wife of Andre Channet, dit Camiraud. He was her
second husband. Her first husband was Jean Moriceau.
Patenostre, Jean, of St. Lambert, came Sept. 6, 1710.
Pepin, Jean, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705.
Perrin, Mathieu, dit Garaho (or Garaut), came Oct. 2. 1709. He was taken
prisoner by the Iroquois while taking goods to Fort Frontenac in 1688.
The next year Jeanne Pilet was also taken prisoner by the Iroquois. They
met as prisoners, and forming an attachment for each other, were married
by Fr. Miller, Jesuit, who was also a captive of the Iroquois at that time.
Petit, Marie, wife of Pierre Poirier, dit Lafleur. Tanguay gives the name
as Marie Clemence Maupetit.
Philippes, dit Belhumeur, Bernard, sergeant in the troops of the department
of marines. He married Anne Gallien, widow of Jerome Marillac. They had both
lived in Detroit, but were married in Montreal, March 18, 1712.
Picard, Alexis. Came as bargeman, May 30. 1705. Brother of Francois,
mentioned below. He was born in 1681, and died at Montreal, April 22, 1745.
Picard, Francois. Came as voyageur, May 30, 1705. His wife was Anne Farreau.
He died at Detroit, Oct. 7, 1728.
Pichet, Pierre. He was born in 1674, married Marie Ann Sylvester at
Pointe aux Trembles in 1697 and died Aug. 12, 1712, at Cap Sante.
Pineau, Thomas, dit Bundemour, sergeant in troops of the marine. He was
stationed in Detroit in 1709.
THE VILLAGE DIRECTORY.
The following is the concluding installment of the directory of
Pinet, Yves, gunsmith, came to Detroit, March 9, 1706, to work
at his trade for three years.
Poirier (called La Fleur), Angelique, daughter of Pierre Poirier, dit Lafleur.
Born March 10, 1709.
Poirier, Pierre Rene, dit Lafieur, farmer and soldier. He married
Marie Clemence Maupetit, June 12, 1707. Her name is given in Ste. Anne's
records as Marie Petit.
Pothier, Toussaint, dit La Verdure, voyageur. Came Sept. 22, 1707.
He lived in Montreal, was born in 1675 and married Marguerite Thunay.
Primo, Jean, dit La ??. Came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. The record from
which this name is taken has been partly destroyed by time and a portion
of the name obliterated.
Proteau, Angelique, wife of Etienne Boutron, dit Major. After the death of
Boutron she married Pierre Germain and died in 1754.
Quarante Sols, or Quarant Sous see Cheanouvouzon.
Quesnel, Jacques and Jean, brothers, voyageurs, came May 18, 1710. They
were sons of Oliver Quesnel. Jean was born at Montreal and Jacques at Lachine.
They lived at Lachine.
Quilenchive. I cannot make out this name. I think it to be an Indian name,
though I may be as sadly mistaken as I was with the name of Xaintonge.
Rabillard, Nicolas. Came Sept. 27, 1706.
Reaume, Charles, voyageur, came Sept. 28, 1710. The only person I can find
bearing this name was a son of Rene Reaume, born April 17, 1688,
Renaud, Charles, esquire, sieur Dubuisson, lieutenant of a company, and
commandant at Fort Pontchartrain at Detroit, in the absence of M. de Laforest.
When Cadillac left Detroit, Laforest agreed to take his place here at once,
but was taken sick and Dubuisson was sent here temporarily to hold it until
Renaud, Louis, dit Duval, came June 16, 1706. Antoine Renaud married
Francoise Duval. The records do not contain the name of Louis as one of
their children, but because he was called Duval, I conclude he was a
child of this marriage.
Rencontre, or Rancontre, see Jardis.
Reneau, Laurent, voyageur, came May 23, 1710. He married Anne Guyon at
St Augustin in 1695, and after 1698 he ]ived at Montreal.
Rhodillon, Louise, wife of Jean Baptiste Gouriou. This name should be
Chaudillon. She was born Jan. 11, 1682, at Sorel, and married Gouriou
June 22, 1701.
Richard, Claude, came April 2, 1707. The only Claude Richard I find was
a son of Guillaume Richard, born Jan, 30, 1684. I find no record of his
marriage or death.
Richard, Jean, farmer and interpreter for the king. His wife was
Marie Ann Ladecouverte (or Yon). Being dangerously wounded July 7, 1708,
he states that he left with his sister, Mme. Duplessis, 720 livres, for
which he holds her note, now in the hands of his cousin, Jacques Langlois,
and he wishes the sum paid to Pierre Roy. He did not die, however,
until several years later.
Rivard, Claude, sieur de Lorange. Agreed with the company of the colony of
Canada, represented by Francoise Dumontier, of Montreal, and
Etienne Volland de Radisson, of Detroit, to go to Detroit, July 10, 1703,
as an interpreter.
Rivard, Francois, dit Montendre, came May 19, 1708.
Rivard, Robert, came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Rivard, Joseph, dit Montendre, came May 18, 1708.
Rivard, Mathurin, came May 18, 1708.
Rivard, Nicolas, born in 1686. He married Marie Joseph Raux in
1724, and died in 1729.
Rivard, Pierre, dit Lanouette, voyageur, came Sept. 6, 1710.
He was born in 1686 and married Marie Anne Caillia, June 9, 1721.
Rivard, Robert, came May 18, 1708. Robert, Joseph, Mathurin,
Claude and Francois were sons of Robert Rivard, of Batiscan.
Robert, Francois, came in 1706. He was born in 1678, married
Marie Lanctot in 1712 and died in 1756.
Robert, Joseph, born in 1674, married in 1701, and died in 1748.
He and Francois and Pierre were brothers, He came to Detroit May 12, 1707.
Robert, Pierre, dit Lafontaine. He movedto Detroit May 19, 1708, with his
wife and children. He had been there before, having come June 15, 1706,
in charge of a canoe of merchandise. His wife was Angelique Ptolomee
(or Tholme). After he died his widow married Guillaume Bouche, Aug. 16, 1716.
At the marriage of his son Antoine in 1743, this Pierre Robert is referred
to as "the late Antoine Robert." The son married Marie Louise Becmond.
Robert, Prudent, came Aug. 12, 1710. He was another brother of Pierre Robert,
all being sons of Louis Robert. His wife, whom he married at Detroit,
Jan. 7, 1711, was Magdeleine Fafard, dit Delorme.
Rose, Nicolas, soldier. He was born in 1674 and died in 1746. His wife
was Marie Anne Prudhomme.
Roy, Edmond, dit Chatellereau, agreed to come to Detroit July 28, 1704,
as brigadier (foreman of a boat's crew). He was to receive 300 livres for
the trip. While he never resided in Detroit, his son Joseph did, and
was married here in 1736 to Magdeleine Perthuis.
Roy, Louis, came as bargeman May 30, 1705. He was born in 1659 and died
Roy, Marguerite, daughter of Pierre Roy. Baptized April 27, 1704.
Roy, Marie Louise, daughter of Pierre Roy. She was baptized May 19, 1708,
married Alexis De Ruisseau, and died in childbirth, Dec. 3, 1735, aged
about 31 years.
Roy, Marie Magdeleine, daughter of Pierre Roy, born May 25, 1710.
She married Pierre Chesne dit La Butte, and died Oct, 20, 1732, aged 22 years.
Roy, Pierre. It has been stated that this was the first man at Detroit and
that he lived with the Indians in this neighborhood before Cadillac came.
His wife was Marguerite Ouabankikoue, a Miami Indian.
Roy, Pierre, son of Pierre Roy. Baptized April 21, 1706.
Roze, Francois and Nicholas, brothers. Came April 13, 1709.
They were sons of Noel Rose and born at Quebec. The name should be Rose.
Ruiet, Jean, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705.
Ruiet, Rene, came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
St. Aubin, Jean, corporal in the garrison. Came to Detroit with Pierre Duroy,
April 11, 1707. See Casse.
St. Marie, Francois Marie, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705.
St. Yves, Joseph, came Aug. 11, 1710 (engage). He was born in 1692 and
consequently only 18 years of age. The family name was St. Ange, dit Hogue.
St. Yves, Pierre, voyageur. Came April 18. 1710. Elder brother
of the preceding. He was born in 1682.
Salomon. I think this name is a mistake, though it occurs in one
of Cadillac's conveyances. I think he intended Salomon Joseph Du Vestin.
Sanaria, Charlotte, wife of Jacques Desmoulins dit Philis. She
was born in 1679 and died May 5, 1744 at Detroit.
Sansquartier, see Martiac.
Sarrazin, Joseph, came as bargeman, May 30. 1705. Son of
Nicholas Sarrazin, born Feb, 24, 1681.
Sarrazin, Nicholas, brother of above, born Jan, 12, 1686.
Sarrazin, Pierre, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. Another
brother of above, born Feb. 26, 1684.
Senecal, Adrien, came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Senecal, Joseph, came Sept. 10, 1710. He was born in 1674 and died
Feb. 28, 1738. His wife was Louise Bareau, or Barros.
Serond (called L'Eveille), Jean.
Simon, Gilbert, or Simon Sanspeur, dit Gilbert, sergeant in the
troops. His wife was Marguerite La Page. She died July 20, 1730, at Detroit.
Simon (probably Pierre), came May 18, 1708. The first name of
this paty has been destroyed in the notarial record, but his
residence is given as Pointe aux Tremble, and the only Simon living at
that place at this time was Pierre.
Sirier, Martin, see Cirier.
Slave (Panis) Jacques. A little slave of Pierre Roy, aged 7 or 8 years.
Slave. The first mention of negroes is two of Louis Campau's in 1736.
Slave (Panisse), Marie Jeanne, belonging to Jean Richard, voyageur,
aged about 15 years.
Slave, (Panis, Indian), belonging to Mr. Moynier, aged 12 to 14 years,
died Nov. 18, 1710.
Slave (Panis, Indian), Joseph, called Escabia. Belonging to Joseph Parent,
aged 21 or 22 years. He died Jan. 21, 1710.
Sontienreuse, Blaise, lately employed as a soldier in the company of
De La Mothe, (1707). Tanguay says his name should be Fondurose.
Sontieureuse, Marie, daughter of Blaise Sontieureuse. Born May 14, 1707.
Stebre, dit La Jeunesse, Agathe, daughter of Pierre Stebre,
dit La Jeunesse. Born Feb. 14, 1710, died Feb. 21, 1710.
Stebre, dit La Jeunesse, ??, daughter of Joseph Nicolas Stebre.
Born Jan. 12, 1711. The priest has omitted to give the first
name of the infant. On Jan. 19, 1733, they buried Angelique
Esteve, wife of Pierre Belleperche, aged about 21 years. She
died of smallpox. This may be the one born Jan. 12, 1711.
Stebre, called La Jeunesse, Pierre, late a soldier. Died July 18, 1736.
His wife was Marie Magdeleine Frappier. She died Dec. 22, 1759, aged 80 years.
He was at Montreal Aug. 27, 1787. He had a daughter Marguerite, who married
Jean Chapoton, surgeon of the fort, July 18, 1720. She died July 7, 1753,
aged 45 years. The name is sometimes given us as Esteve, and Steve,
but the descendants are now usually called La Jeunesse.
Stebre, dit La Jeunesse, Pierre, son of Pierre Stebre. Born May 1 1708.
Married (as Steve) Marie Desforges, widow of Francois Picard, Oct. 24, 1729.
Died March 24, 1731.
Surgere, Blaise, farmer. I find frequent mention of this name,
but cannot identify its possessor, unless it is the same as
Susart, called Delorme, Francois. (probably an error on the part
of the priest in writing the name of Fafard), dit Delorme.
Tabaux, Jacques. Came as bargeman, May 20, 1705.
Tabaux, Jean. Jr. Came May 15, 1708. He married Angelique Brunet
in 1710 and died at Montreal in 1728.
Tessier, Paul. He was a resident of Montreal. Came to Detroit
in 1708, and was here again in 1710, when he witnessed the
marriage of Martin Cirier and Marie Anne Bone.
Tessler, Antoine, farmer.
Tetreau, Jean Bantiste, Joseph, and Laurent, brothers. Came April 21, 1707.
Tholme, Angelique, wife of Pierre Robert. This name is given as
Angelique Dalonne, and in some places as Ptolme, by Tanguay. She
was buried in 1744, aged about 65 years. She married Guillaume Bouche,
after the death of Robert.
Tonty, Alphonse, captain of a company, aged 68 years. Buried Nov. 10. 1727.
His first wife was Anne Picote. She and Cadillac's wife were the first
women in Detroit. She died in 1714, and in 1717 he married
Marianne Delamaroue, widow of Jean Baptiste Nolan. Tonty was an Italian,
and frequent references are made to the Italian schemer.
Tousignan, Michel, dit Lepointe. Came Sept. 6, 1710. He was the son of
Pierre Tousignan, and married Marie Catherine Lemay.
Trottier, Alexis. Came May 18, 1708. Son of Antoine Trottier and
brother of Paul, below. He married Marie Louise Roy at Detroit,
Jan. 6, 1735, and after her death married Catherine Godfroy.
Trottier, Gabriel, dit St. Jean. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705.
Trottier, Joseph, dit Desruisseaux. Came on Oct. 17, 1708. He was a brother
of Michel, and born in 1668. His wife was Francoise Cuillerier.
Trottier, Michel, sieur de Beaubien. Came May 18, 1708. He was born in
1675 and married Agnes Godfroy in 1700.
Trottier, Paul (brother of Joseph). Came Oct. 17, 1708.
Truteau, Jean Baptiste, married Magdeleine Parant Sept. 1, 1715, and died
Truteau, Joseph, carpenter, brother of Jean Baptiste. They came together
April 2, 1707. Josenh died at Montreal in 1745.
Tuffe, called du Fresne, Antoine. The only person I can find bearing this
name was born in Montreal Aug. 21, 1677.
Tune, Magdeleine, wife of Pierre Malet. This name should be Du Fresne. She
was born in 1669 and married Francois Pelletier. After his death she married
Pierre Malet or Maillet.
Turpin, Jean Baptiste, son of Alexander Turpin and Charlotte Beauvais, of
Montreal. Married Marguerite Fafard. daughter of the late Jean Fafard and
Marguerite Conique, of this parish and new colony, May 5, 1710.
Turpin, Jean Baptiste, voyageur. Came Oct. 2, 1709.
Turpin, Jean Baptiste, son of Jean Baptiste Turpin. Born Dec. 14, 1710.
Vaudry, Etienne, voyageur. Came Aug. 2, 1707. Born at Three Rivers,
Oct. 27. 1685.
Vaudry, Jacoues. Came as bargeman, May 30. 1705. Born in 1670, and
died in 1743.
Vaudry, Joseph. Came Aug. 19, 1710. He was born in 1687, and married
Marguerite Lepage, widow of Simon Gilbert. Etienne, Jacques and Joseph
were brothers and sons of Jacques Vaudry and Jeanne Renault.
Veron, Etienne, de Grandmeuil. Appointed attorney in fact for
Cadillac, July 26. 1709. His name has been mentioned above. He
was born in 1649, married Marie Moral, dit Montendre, and died
at Three Rivers May 18, 1721. He lived several years at
Detroit, and was a man of considerable importance, having charge
of the public storehouse and acting as amanuensis for Cadillac.
Vien, Ignace. Came as voyageur. June 12. 1706. Died 1751, aged 80 years.
Villain, Pierre, soldier in company of De Le Mothe.
Volant, Jean Francois, sieur de Fosseneuve. Agreed to go to
Detroit to serve as a hunter, July 10, 1703. He was born in
1670, and married Marguerite Godfroy June 6, 1701.
Xaintonge, ??. When I first encountered this name it stood alone without
any connecting names. I concluded it was an Indian name and so stated.
Further investigation has led me to conclude that I was greatly mistaken,
and that the individual was named Pierre Gareau, dit St. Onge, and that
the name St. Onge has been graduallly changed to Saintonge and from that
Zerbain, Pierre, dit St. Pierre, a soldier.
FR. DENISSEN'S LETTER.
Detroit, Mich., Nov. 9th, 1896.
Dear Friend Burton:
I have read with relish your series of articles and the Directory of Detroit
from 1701 to 1710, as published in the Sunday News-Tribune.
The many new facts you furnish on that interesting period of Detroit's
infancy must be very acceptable to every lover of local history.
No directory can be complete without a full and well authenticated list of
all the officers, soldiers and civilians who arrived here with Cadillac on
the 24th of July, 1701. In your indefatigable researches, I hope you will
yet find all the names of the whole party who founded Fort Pontchartrain
at the Detroit. You have the taste, the means, and the ability to bring
to light that coveted treasure. Cadillac must have made a record of all
those engaged by him to undertake that difficult expedition from Montreal
to Detroit, to establish that well-planned post for the French Government.
He always gave such an elaborate account of himself, his doings, his
surroundings and his plans; certainly he did not omit to record the full
particulars of the greatest achievement of his military life, the founding
of the most important post in the Northwest of America, a work entirely his
own, in conception and execution. He made his preparations in Montreal;
there he selected with care men who could stand the hardships of this arduous
task. He must have had a list of his soldiers, for all had to be paid
regularly; the civilians who accompanied him must have made agreements with
their leader, for they were in quest of gain. Written contracts signed
before a notary were the fashion in those days.
Cadillac and his party took the Ottawa route to Detroit. The French voyageurs
of those times had calculated with precision the difficulties of their trips.
Coming west, they favored the Ottawa route; going east, they preferred
traveling by the Niagara Portage; this gave them as much as possible the
benefit of the water current.
Cadillac arrived in the Detroit River and selected his landing place on the
24th of July, 1701. Immediately the party went to work to procure shelter
for themselves. On the second day after their landing, the 26th of July,
on the feast of St. Ann, the priests, the government chaplains of the party,
held religious services for the new settlers, and mass was celebrated for
the first time at Detroit; the incipient church was dedicated, on account of
the feast of the day, to St. Ann, and St. Ann's church has remained to this
day the mother church of Detroit.
There is no account that any white man had his abode at the Detroit River
previous to Cadillac. You proved satisfactorily that neither Peter Roy nor
Joseph Parent could have been here before July of 1701. There is no ground
for the belief that a Francis Peltier preceded Cadillac. It could not have
been Francis Peltier, the son of Francis Peltier and Margaret Magdelene
Morisseau, for he died in Lower Canada before 1698; his widow, Magdelene
Thunay, dit Dufresne, married again at Montreal on the 9th of January, 1698,
Peter Maillet. His son, John Francis Peltier, born at Sorel, Lower Canada,
August 15, 1691, came to Detroit with his stepfather's family about the
year 1705-06, and married there March 25, 1718, Mary Louisa Robert.
Peter Roy married, probably in 1703, a Miamis Indian, aud took up his
residence in the village of the Miamis, who had been induced by Cadillac
to come and settle near Detroit.
Cadillac might have wished that the men of his party marry Indian women,
but Peter Roy is about the only one who did so. Those vigorous pioneers
did not shape their love affairs on the utilitarian plan. The young men
grew lonesome in this wilderness, and their thoughts would wander back to
the girls they left behind them. Permission was readily granted to any
one who wanted to return to Lower Canada to secure a bride. According as
these treasures were imported to Detroit, the place grew more civilized,
and the inhabitants felt more at home and contented. The French of Detroit
and vicinity never intermarried with the Indians to any great extent; there
have been a few exceptional cases, but such marriages were rare, and,
because so rare, they were all the more noticed. No bride suits the French
heart as well as the frank, modest, polite, charming French maiden, who
has the desirable faculty to grace her home as a queen and bring happiness
to her surroundings. In the eighteenth century the girls married very young.
The marriage bond was considered indissoluble; divorces were unknown;
scandalous infidelities, at least on the part of the women, seem not to
have occurred. Marriages were contracted with all the precautions with which
the Church guards that sacred contract. The settlers of the outposts were in
constant communication with the people of Lower Canada. They knew each other
and their marriage relations. It was almost impossible for a man to abandon
his lawful wife in Lower Canada and marry surreptitiously in Detroit or
vicinity. The French home with its contentedness, made the maintenance of
Fort Pontchartrain at Detroit feasible. Detroit owes much to the French
mothers of the eighteenth century.
Your directory shows what share they had during the first ten years of our
Allow me to make a few interpolations in your great work. Aymard seems to
me to be the correct spelling for Hernart or Maimart. The name is given
also as Adhemard and Haymard. Peter Aymard married at Lachine, June 12, 1706,
Mary Ann Lalande, dit Filiastreau, born at Lachine, February 18, 1685,
daughter of Stephen Lalande and Nicole Filiastreau. Peter Aymard returned
to Lachine in 1710-11.
Julian Bariteau, dit Lamarche, did not remain in Detroit. His grandson,
Charles Bariteau, dit Lamarche, born at Lougueuil, Lower Canada, May 26, 1743,
settled at Detroit, and married there January 7, 1783, Jane Bernard. He moved
to Sandwich, Ont., a few years later, where he died September 24, 1810. The
family of Bariteau, dit Lamarche, and their descendants remained in the
vicinity of Sandwich even to the present day.
The brothers Bazinet, Peter and Joseph, did not take up their residence in
Detroit. Joseph's grandson moved to Detroit and married there July 12, 1784,
Mary Louisa Meloche.
Peter's grandson, John Louis Bazinet, moved with his family to Sandwich, Ont.
Some of his descendants moved to Detroit; many of them are residing at present
at Mt. Clemens, at the Clinton River, near New Baltimore, and near St. Clair
Francis Bienvenu, dit Delisle, came to Detroit with his family before
March, 1704. His son Joseph was born at Detroit March 5, 1704, and twelve
of his fourteen children were born at Detroit. Tauguay states that his son
Alexis Bienvenu, dit Delisle, was born at Detroit in 1701. I do not see what
evidence Taugnay could have for this assertion. The registers of Detroit
for 1701-02-03 were burned. I suppose this is a misprint in Tanguay. The
same author gives a son Anthony, from the first marriage, who married at
Kaskakia, June 3, 1726, Frances Rabut. This Anthony must have been a
resident of Detroit.
Andrew Bombardier was born in the City of Lille, Belgium. He left Detroit
after 1709, and remained in Lower Canada. His grandson, Philip Bombardier,
dit Labombarde, moved with his family to Sandwich, Out., about 1788, where
his descendants can be found at the present day.
Charles Cabassier came to Detroit on business. His son, Joseph Cabassier,
born at Montreal May 2, 1722, came to Detroit and married
there January 19, 1753, Augelica Bienvenu, dit Delisle. His descendants
are still in Detroit or vicinity.
Anthony Campau, born at Montreal January 1, 1702; Michael Campau, born at
Montreal January 22, 1707, children of Michael Campau, were residents of
Henry Campau, born at Montreal December 3, 1704, and Mary Ann Cecilia Campau,
born at Montreal June 21, 1707, children of James Campau, were residents of
Detroit before 1710.
Paul Dumouchel was in Detroit on business and did not settle there. His son,
Paul Dumouchel, born at Montreal January 11, 1717, came to Detroit, married
there January 26, 1749, Jane Chapoton, daughter of Dr. John Chapoton, and
Mary Magdelene Esteve. His wife died the next year, and he returned to
Lower Canada. Louis Vital Dumouchel, born at Montreal December 12, 1745,
grandson of Paul Dumouchel, Sr., came to Sandwich, Out., and married there
November 22, 1773, Magdelene Gouyou. They are the ancestors of all the
Dumouchels of the vicinity of Sandwich and Amherstburg.
John Le Duc, who paid a visit to Detroit October 11, 1710, moved there with
his family about the year 1732. Many of his descendants reside in Detroit
and vicinity at the present day.
Rene Maillet was a brother of Peter Maillet. He did not remain in Detroit;
some of his grandchildren settled there.
John Francis Peltier, born at Sorel, Lower Canada August 15, 1691, was a
citizen of Detroit. His father, Francis Peltier, died in Lower Canada before
1698. Young John Francis came to Detroit, with his stepfather's family, about
the year 1705-06. He married at Detroit, Mary Louisa Robert, daughter of
Peter Robert and Angelica Ptolomee. He was buried there, about the year 1723.
He is the forefather of the numerous Peltiers of Detroit, Monroe, Toledo,
Mt. Clemens, Port Huron, etc. He is the great-great-great-grandfather of
Priscilla Mary Ann Peltier, wife of Alexander Chapoton, our well-known
Mary Peltier, born in 1697, sister of John Francis Peltier, also came to
Detroit with her stepfather. Mary Louisa Robert, born at Lachine
December 15, 1698, came to Detroit May 19, 1708, with her parents,
Peter Robert and Angelica Ptolome. She married John Francis Peltier. After
his death she married again, at Detroit, January 7, 1725, John Louis Campau.
She was buried at Detroit April 2, 1776. She is the great-great-grandmother
of Daniel J. Campau, of our city. Peter Robert, born at Lachine,
November 5, 1704, is a brother of above Mary Louisa. He is the ancestor
of many of the Roberts of Monroe and vicinity.
Robert Reaume, brother of Charles Reaume, together with Joseph Trotier,
dit Desruisseaux, and Toussaint Pothier, dit Laverdure, was
engaged on the 5th of September, 1701, to escort Mrs. De Lamothe Cadillac,
Mrs. Alphonse Tonti and their children from Montreal to Detroit, and at the
same time to accompany Francis Mary Picote de Belestre and equipages on the
same trip. Mrs. Cadillac's cousin, Mary Guyon, was married to Rene Reaume,
brother of this Robert. Robert Reaume did not settle in Detroit. His sons,
Hyacinthe and Peter Reaume, became residents of Detroit after their marriage,
and are forefathers of all the Reaumes of this vicinity.
Alphonse Tonti, Baron of Paludy, born in 1659, came to Canada in the military
service of the French Government. In 1687, he passed through the Detroit River,
having orders to join Daniel Duluth de Greyzelon, who then built a stockade,
called Fort St. Joseph, at the mouth of Lake Huron, where now is Fort Gratiot.
This palisade was destroyed a year later. Alphonse Tonti accompanied Cadillac,
as captain of the military expedition, to establish Fort Pontchartrain at the
Detroit, in 1701. Jealous of Cadillac, and encouraged by his (Cadillac's)
enemies, he plotted the failure and destruction of the post at Detroit.
This led to the incendiary fire in the fort of Detroit, in the latter part
of 1703, when the church, the house of the Recolets and the records were
burned. History sustained an irreparable loss by the burning of those
registers, containing the births, marriages, deaths and historical notes of
the three infantile years of Detroit. Beyond doubt, the baptism of Tonti's
daughter Teresa was registered in those books. This Teresa Tonti is the
first child born in Detroit, of whom we have any certainty. Tonti married at
Montreal February 17, 1689, Mary Ann Picote de Belestre, born at Montreal
February 9, 1673, daughter of Peter Picote de Belestre and Mary Pars.
Mary Ann Picote de Belestre was buried at Montreal Sept.11, 1714.
Alphonse Tonti married again at Montreal May 3, 1717, Mary Ann La Marque.
Alphonse Tonti was commandant of Fort Pontchartrain of Detroit, from 1720
to 1727, in which year he died, and was buried at Detroit November 10. The
following Tonti children must have resided at Detroit previous to 1710.
Philip Tonti, born at Montreal September 30, 1689; Mary Frances Tonti, born
at Montreal October 19, 1690, became a nun of the Congregation of Notre Dame,
by the name of Sister St. Anthony; she was buried at Montreal June 14, 1748;
Alphonse Tonti, born at Montreal October 30, 1691; Mary Helena Tonti, born at
Montreal February 22, 1693; Louis Tonti, born at Montreal February 25, 1694,
was buried there December 12, 1715; Henry Hector Tonti, born at Montreal
December 21, 1695; Charles Henry Tonti, born at Montreal May 13, 1697, became
governor of Fort St Louis; Claude Joseph Tonti, born at Montreal
August 18, 1700; Teresa Tonti, born at Detroit, in 1703.
Tuffe, dit Dufresne, Antoine: This name is also found as Tuve. The correct
name is Thunay, dit Dufresne, Anthony, born in 1680, son of Felix Thunay,
dit Dufresne and Isabelle Lefebvre. Anthony's sister, Magdelene, married
Francis Peltier, and, after his death, Peter Maillet. His other sister,
Margaret, married Toussaint Pothier, dit Laverdure, who escorted
Mrs. Cadillac and Mrs. Tonti to Detroit.
In one of your articles you say: "I confess that I do not understand how the
old French names are made up." The various changes of French names are truly
a puzzle to the student of genealogy. The following explanations and
illustrations, I think, will account for most of those innovations:
1. The early colonists of Lower Canada obtained from the French
Government grants of extensive tracts of land. These grants were executed
in the mediaeval phraseology used under the feudal system of bolding estate.
The settlers assuming a resemblance between their holdings and the domains of
the French barons and "seignerns," called their large, wild farms by certain
titles, and affixed the same to their own family names, in imitation of
the European nobility. In some cases these titles were confirmed by the
government. The owners of these vast estates considered themselves seigneurs
of this new country, and were very proud of the affixes to their names. In
business transactions these additions to their signatures were used with all
their flourishes. At baptisms the title had to be entered in the parish
registers; at marriages the affix to the old family name sounded high both
for bride and groom in the verbose marriage contract; respectability was
increased by the presence of many witnesses with titled names. In this manner
the owners of large estates in Lower Canada, at a certain period of the
seventeenth century, looked upon themselves and upon each other as a
quasi-nobility. Their children naturally assumed those titles and often
thought more of the affixes than of their own family names. Feudalism was
about dead, and fast dying in Europe in those days, and therefore could not
gain foothold in America. In the eighteenth century we do not find new titles
originating; still the old ones remained. The grandchildren and
great-grandchildren of these titled pioneers often discarded the old family
name and were known only by the new title. Hence the new names that the
genealogist has to contend with. As an illustration, take the Trotier
family. The Trotiers of America all descend from Julius Trotier, born
in 1590, in the parish of St. Martin, in the Town of Ige, in the province
of Perche, France. He, seemingly a common citizen, came with his family to
Canada about the year 1645. His children married in Canada, and, in the course
of time, had large families. They obtained extensive estates and were very
lavish in originating titles for the same. In a few years we find Trotier
Sieur des Ruisseaux, Trotier Seigneur de l'Isle Perrot, Trotier Sieur de
Beaubien, Trotier Seigneur de la Riviere du Loup, Trotier Seigneur de l'Isle
aux Herons, Trotier Sieur des Aulniers, Trotier de la Bissonniere, Trotier
dit Desrivieres, Trotier de Bellecour, Trotier de Valcour, etc. Many of these
Trotiers gradualiy dropped the family name and signed only the assumed title.
Hence we have the families of Beaubien, Desruisseaux, Desaulniers, Bellecour,
Labissonniere, Desrivieres, Devalcour, etc. All these trace to a common
ancestor, Julius Trotier.
2. Another cause of the change of French names was the custom so
prevalent in former times, of nicknaming themselves and others. This was done
sometimes to discern one family from another of the same name; as a family
Baron was nicknamed Lupien-Baron dit Lupien to distinguish it from other Baron
families, Lupien being the Christian name of the ancestor of that family in
this country. At other occasions the nickname originated through family pride;
when a member was distinguished, that branch of a family would annex the
Christian name of the hero, or; if a woman, the family name of the revered
heroine. In this manner some Cuilleriers lost their own name through the
marriage of John Cuillerier with Mary Catherine Trotier de Beaubien; this lady
was distinguished through her family title of Beaubien, and after
John Cuillerier's death, by becoming the wife of Francis Picote de Belestre,
an officer of Fort Pontchartrain. On this account her children from the first
marriage signed themselves Cuillerier dit Beaubien, and in later generations
Cuillerier was dropped and nothing was left but Beaubien. These are the
Beaubiens of our vicinity. Another instance of the same kind we find in the
family of Leonard. Leonard Simon, born at Montreal, September 3, 1656, was
considered by his descendants to have been a great man, consequently the
family name became Simon dit Leonard; in time the old name Simon was dropped
and Leonard became the family name. These Leonards we find in Monroe and
vicinity in great abundance. Again families glorifying the section of country
their forefathers came from, added to their names the province, city or town
of their ancestor. In this manner the Sedilot family, who came from the City
of Montreuil, in Picardy, France, became Sedilot dit Montreuil, and later on
are simply Montreuil. So it was with Casse, who originated from the town of
St. Aubin; they became Casse dit St. Aubin, and now are only St. Aubin. The
same we find in Bourgeat, who came from the province of Provence; they adopted
Bourgeat dit Provencal, and now are Provencal. We meet with the same case in
the family of Lootman, who are of Holland origin, and moved from the Netherlands
to the province of Berry, France; they became in Canada Lootman dit Barrois,
later on in Detroit we find them as Barrois. The same is true of Toulouse,
Champagne, Gascon, Langoumois, and many others. There are nick-names that
originated from the peculiar circumstances of birth, like Nicolas Campau
dit Niagara, who was born at the Portage of Niagara, when his parents were
traveling from Detroit to Montreal. It happened, also, that nicknames were
given by Indians, as Labadie dit Badichon, Peltier dit Antaya. Nicknames
have also been given frivolously and would stick in future generations, as in
the family of Poissant, sounding like Poisson (fish), by adding Lasaline
(salt), Poissant dit Lasaline (saltfish). Another way of nicknaming was by
adopting a peculiar Christian name by which a certain person was known in the
community; so we find in the fanuly of Le Tourneux, a Jean Baptiste Le Tourneux,
who settled in Sandwich, opposite the Michigan Central Depot of present
Detroit, about 110 years ago. He was known by everyone as Jeannette
(the diminutive name of Jean); by incorrect spelling he became Janet and
Janette, hence Le Tourneux dit Janette. His numerous descendants are called
Janette. From him we have Janette street in Windsor, Ont., and farther west
Janette's Creek, and Janette railroad station.
The most curious way of changing of names we find in the family of Ellair or
Elaire. The common ancestor is Hilaire Surean, who came from France and
married at Quebec June 18, 1691. His son's name was Peter Sureau dit Blondin,
who married at Montreal in 1723; and his children signed themselves Blondin
dit Hilaire. Their descendants were named Hilaire, and in Detroit the name
has been corrupted to Ellair.
Other modes might be mentioned. It is singular that scarcely a name has been
adopted from the trade, occupation or profession that a person followed.
These nicknames are attached to the name proper by the word "dit," which might
be rendered in our language by "called," "named," "namely," "to wit,"
"known as;" but "dit" is so idiomatically French that it can hardly be
translated into English.
The suppression of "s" in some names, as from Chesne to Chene, Estienne to
Etienne, is accounted for by the evolution of the French language from the
old form to the modern way of spelling.
I hope, Mr. Burton, that my explanations may assist you in the great work,
which seems to you a pleasure.
Pastor of St. Charles', Detroit.
Bill Martin, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.